SCG WF ASPNET

From OWASP
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is part of the OWASP Secure Configuration Guide.
Back to the OWASP Secure Configuration Guide ToC: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Secure_Configuration_Guide Back to the OWASP Secure Configuration Guide Project: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Secure_Configuration_Guide


Summary

ASP.NET server-side Web application framework designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It was developed by Microsoft to allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web services. It was first released in January 2002 with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP) technology. ASP.NET is built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), allowing programmers to write ASP.NET code using any supported .NET language. The ASP.NET SOAP extension framework allows ASP.NET components to process SOAP messages. ASP.NET is in the process of being re-implemented as a modern and modular web framework, together with other frameworks like Entity Framework. The new framework will make use of the new open-source .NET Compiler Platform (code-name "Roslyn") and be cross platform. ASP.NET MVC, ASP.NET Web API, and ASP.NET Web Pages (a platform using only Razor pages) will merge into a unified MVC 6.[3] The project is called "ASP.NET vNext".


Common Misconfigurations

Tracing misconfiguration

Description

Trace.axd is an Http Handler for .NET  that can be used to view the trace details for an application. ASP.NET tracing enables you to view diagnostic information about a single request for an ASP.NET page. ASP.NET tracing enables you to follow a page's execution path, display diagnostic information at run time, and debug your application. When it's enabled in a production environment, it poses a disclosure risk by exposing information about the internal operation of the page. A request to this file through a browser displays the trace log of the last n requests in time-order, where n is an integer determined by the value set by requestLimit="[n]" in the application’s configuration file.

How to test

Make a request

http://[target]/trace.axd

Tracing does not appear to be ON as the request didn't return a page with a heading called "Application Trace". File:TraceAXD.png

Remediation

Trace can be disabled inside web.config file.

<configuration>
  <system.web>
    <trace enabled="false"/>
  </system.web>
</configuration>

Trace can be configured at page level with @Page directive, so when going to production remove those settings from pages or turn them off.


Custom errors misconfiguration

Description

Custom errors are used to ensure that internal error messages are not exposed to end users. Custom errors can include Framework version, Stack Trace. This information can be leveraged to exploit the application as it discloses potentially sensitive information about the internal implementation of the website. Instead, a custom error message should be returned which provides a friendlier user experience and keeps potentially sensitive internal implementation information away from public view.

How to test

Make a request

http://[target]/<random_page>.aspx

Another way is if Page receive param (like ID) you can duplicate this param in request ID=1&ID=1 That will cause framework to show error page.

If custom error mode in turned off you will see detailed error description formed by ASP.NET framework.

Remediation

Turn ON CustomErrors mode that will prevent disclosure of technical information.

<configuration>
  <system.web>
    <customErrors mode="On">
  </system.web>
</configuration>

Hash DoS misconfiguration

Description

The hash table denial of service vulnerability (hash DoS) allows an attacker to make a POST request with a very large number of parameters constructed to cause hash collisions when parsed by ASP.NET. These collisions are very computationally expensive and could subsequently cause the CPU utilization to spike thus disallowing it to process legitimate requests. Microsoft patched the risk in security update MS11-100 then resolved it permanently with the release of .NET 4.5.

How to test

A POST request with 1,001 form parameters named "0" through to "1000". Check if any differences occurs when web-application process such requests. Time differences, some error responses.

Remediation

Install MS11-100 patch


ELMAH log misconfiguration

Description

ELMAH is used extensively by ASP.NET websites for error logging and handling. When improperly configured, ELMAH error logs can be easily viewed without any access controls thus exposing potentially sensitive information about the website.

How to test

Request

http://[target]/elmah.axd

You should see page with "Error Log for" text

Remediation

In order to provide a customization mechanism for the features ELMAH requires the configuration file to contain specific sections declarations under the root configuration node, as shown in the following snippet.

<configSections>     
   <sectionGroup name="elmah">
     <section name="security" requirePermission="false" type="Elmah.SecuritySectionHandler, Elmah" />     
   </sectionGroup>     
</configSections>

There's a default section group named elmah which contains custom configuration sections to tune several aspects concerning security.

Notice the presence of the requirePermission attribute declaration. Note: The requirePermission attribute is new to ASP.NET 2.0 and it's not recognized by ASP.NET 1.x, thus it must be omitted in that environment.

Configure ELMAH Log access.

<elmah>  
  <security allowRemoteAccess="0" />  
</elmah> 

Excessive headers misconfiguration

Description

By default, excessive information about the server and frameworks used by an ASP.NET application are returned in the response headers. These headers can be used to help identify security flaws which may exist as a result of the choice of technology exposed in these headers.

How to test

Make a request to web-application and check HTTP response headers. You can use Fiddler, Burp, ZAP or other web-proxy. File:Headers.png

Remediation

Configuring the application to not return unnecessary headers keeps this information silent and makes it significantly more difficult to identify the underlying frameworks.

<system.web>
  <httpRuntime enableVersionHeader="false" />
</system.web>

Go into the IIS configuration of the website and locate the “HTTP Response Headers”  And remove X-Power-By header.

The MVC version is also easy, although it does require us to touch code. Over in the Global.asax, we want to jump into the Application_Start event and add the following:

MvcHandler.DisableMvcResponseHeader = true;

HTTP only cookies misconfiguration

Description

Cookies not flagged as "HttpOnly" may be read by client side script and are at risk of being interpreted by a cross site scripting (XSS) attack. Whilst there are times where a cookie set by the server may be legitimately read by client script, most times the "HttpOnly" flag is missing it is due to oversight rather than by design.

How to test

Make a request to web-application and check HTTP response headers. You can use Fiddler, Burp, ZAP or other web-proxy. All cookie values in response must contain HttpOnly option (like in example below). File:HttpOnly.png

Remediation

Unless the cookie legitimately needs to be read by JavaScript on the client, the "HttpOnly" flag should always be set to ensure it cannot be read by the client and used in an XSS attack.

<httpCookies httpOnlyCookies="true" />

Secure cookies misconfiguration

Description

Cookies served over HTTPS but not flagged as "secure" may be sent over an insecure connection by the browser. Often this may be a simple request for an asset such as a bitmap file but if it's on the same domain as the cookie is valid for then it will be sent in an insecure fashion. This poses a risk of interception via a man in the middle attack.

How to test

Make a request to web-application and check HTTP response headers. You can use Fiddler, Burp, ZAP or other web-proxy. All cookie values in response must contain secure option (like in example below).

File:Secure.png

Remediation

The "secure" flag should always be set to ensure that cookie values can't be exposed over unprotected communication.

<httpCookies requireSSL="true" />

Clickjacking misconfiguration

Description

Websites are at risk of a clickjacking attack when they allow content to be embedded within a frame. An attacker may use this risk to invisibly load the target website into their own site and trick users into clicking on links which they never intended to. An "X-Frame-Options" header should be sent by the server to either deny framing of content, only allow it from the same origin or allow it from a trusted URIs.

How to test

Make a request to web-application and check HTTP response headers. You can use Fiddler, Burp, ZAP or other web-proxy. All cookie values in response must contain X-Frame-Option header (like in example below). File:XFrame.png

Remediation

Go into the IIS configuration of the website and locate the “HTTP Response Headers”  And add X-Frame-Options header with DENY or SAMEORIGIN value. Or inside Web.config:

<system.webServer>
<httpProtocol>
    <customHeaders>
      <add name="X-Frame-Options" value="DENY | SAMEORIGIN" />
    </customHeaders>
  </httpProtocol>
</system.webServer>

View state MAC misconfiguration

Description

MAC (message authentication code) is used to ensure the integrity of view state by hashing the contents with a private key then validating the hash when the view state is posted back to the server. Disabling view state removes this validation process and may pose significant risks to the application's security profile if an attacker is able to manipulate the view state and post it back to the web site.

How to test

  1. Intercept request to web-site with Burp or Fiddler and remove __VIEWSTATE param if web-site responds with Validation Error then MAC Validation is ON
  2. Inside web page source code find __VIEWSTATE param, decode its value with base64. Check last bytes that follows "dd", if exists then there is VIEWSTATE validation is on. Example:
<input type="hidden" name="__VIEWSTATE" id="__VIEWSTATE" value="..." />

Remediation

Turn on ViewState validation mode in web.config or at specific page. (Note: MachineKey also should be defined in a secure way - please read more at Cryptography Page)

<configuration>
  <system.web>
    <pages enableViewStateMac="true"/>

<configuration>
  <system.web>
    <machineKey validation="AES" validationKey="AutoGenerate,IsolateApps" />

ViewState Encryption misconfiguration

Description

To reduce the chance of someone intercepting the information stored in the ViewState, it is good design to encrypt the ViewState. Unencrypted ViewState can expose and leak secret information.

How to test

Inside web page source code find __VIEWSTATE param, decode its value with base64. Check if it can be decoded from base64. If not then its encrypted.

Example:

<input type="hidden" name="__VIEWSTATE" id="__VIEWSTATE" value="..." />

Remediation

Configure following options inside web.config.

<machineKey validationKey="AutoGenerate,IsolateApps"  decryptionKey="AutoGenerate,IsolateApps" validation="HMACSHA256"
  decryption="AES" />

<system.web>
  <pages viewStateEncryptionMode="Auto" />
</system.web>

Request validation misconfiguration

Description

In a web forms site, request validation ensures all requests to the website do not contain a potentially malicious payload. This protects against the likelihood of cross site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities being exploited on the site.

How to test

Intercept request to web-site with Burp or Fiddler and put some suspicions XSS payload to one of params (like - <xss 'test=" />) If web-site responds with exception then everything is OK.

Remediation

Turn on RequestValidation in web.config.

<configuration>
  <system.web>
    <pages validateRequest="true" />

Event validation misconfiguration

Description

When web-site actively uses extended controls like ListBox, ComboBox etc All control states are saved between request in __EVENTVALIDATION param. For security reasons to prevent manipulation with those params ASP.NET has Event Validation scheme that signs __EVENTVALIDATION param with HMAC like __VIEWSTATE.

How to test

  1. Intercept request to web-site with Burp or Fiddler and remove __EVENTVALIDATION param if web-site responds with Validation Error then MAC Validation is ON
  2. Inside web page source code find __EVENTVALIDATION param, decode its value with base64. Check last bytes that follows "dd", if exists then there is EVENTVALIDATION validation is on.

Remediation

Turn on EventValidation in web.config.

<configuration>
  <system.web>
    <pages enableEventValidation="true"/>

<configuration>
  <system.web>
    <machineKey validation="AES" validationKey="AutoGenerate,IsolateApps" />

Debug mode misconfiguration

Description

Application in debug mode expose lot of system information inside error messages if any exception occurs.

How to test

  1. Make a request
http://[target]/<random_page>.aspx
  1. Another way is if Page receive param (like ID) you can duplicate this param in request ID=1&ID=1. That will cause framework to show error page.

If custom error mode in turned off you will see detailed error description formed by asp.net framework. And if debug mode is ON then inside stack trace of error you will see even line of code where error occurred

Remediation

Turn off Debug Mode in web.config

<compilation debug="false" /> 

ASP.NET Padding Oracle Vulnerability (POET) misconfiguration

Description

The vulnerability could allow information disclosure. An attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could read data, such as the view state, which was encrypted by the server. This vulnerability can also be used for data tampering, which, if successfully exploited, could be used to decrypt and tamper with the data encrypted by the server. Microsoft .NET Framework versions prior to Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5 Service Pack 1 are not affected by the file content disclosure portion of this vulnerability.

How to test

Use padBuster.pl script to test your web site.

Remediation

Install patch for MS10-70 security update.


References