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Latest revision as of 11:04, 27 May 2009

This is a Vulnerability. To view all vulnerabilities, please see the Vulnerability Category page.

Last revision (mm/dd/yy): 05/27/2009

Vulnerabilities Table of Contents


The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.


  • Authentication: If the secret in a single-factor authentication scheme gets compromised, full authentication is possible.

Exposure period

  • Design: Authentication methods are determined at design time.


  • Languages: All
  • Operating platform: All

Required resources




Likelihood of exploit


While the use of multiple authentication schemes is simply piling on more complexity on top of authentication, it is inestimably valuable to have such measures of redundancy.

The use of weak, reused, and common passwords is rampant on the internet. Without the added protection of multiple authentication schemes, a single mistake can result in the compromise of an account. For this reason, if multiple schemes are possible and also easy to use, they should be implemented and required.

Risk Factors



In C:

unsigned char *check_passwd(char *plaintext){
        if (ctext==secret_password())
          // Log me in

In Java:

String plainText = new String(plainTextIn)
MessageDigest encer = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA");
byte[] digest = password.digest();
if (digest==secret_password())
  //log me in

Related Attacks

Related Vulnerabilities

Related Controls

  • Design: Use multiple independent authentication schemes, which ensures that - if one of the methods is compromised - the system itself is still likely safe from compromise.

Related Technical Impacts