Testing for authentication
Authentication (Greek: αυθεντικός = real or genuine, from 'authentes' = author ) is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) as authentic, that is, that claims made by or about the thing are true. Authenticating an object may mean confirming its provenance, whereas authenticating a person often consists of verifying her identity. Authentication depends upon one or more authentication factors. In computer security, authentication is the process of attempting to verify the digital identity of the sender of a communication. A common example of such a process is the logon process. Testing the authentication schema means understanding how the authentication process works and using that information to circumvent the authentication mechanism.
4.4.1 Default or guessable (dictionary) user account
First we test if there are default user accounts or guessable username/password combinations (dictionary testing)
4.4.2 Brute Force
When a dictionary type attack fails, a tester can attempt to use brute force methods to gain authentication. Brute force testing is not easy to accomplish for testers because of the time required and the possible lockout of the tester.
4.4.3 Bypassing authentication schema
Other passive testing methods attempt to bypass the authentication schema by recognizing that not all of the application's resources are adequately protected. The tester can access these resources without authentication.
4.4.4 Directory traversal/file include
Directory Traversal Testing is a particular method to find a way to bypass the application and gain access to system resources. Typically, these vulnerabilities are caused by misconfiguration.
4.4.5 Vulnerable remember password and pwd reset
Here we test how the application manages the process of "password forgotten". We also check whether the application allows the user to store the password in the browser ("remember password" function).
4.4.6 Logout and Browser Cache Management Testing
As a final test we check that the logout and caching functions are properly implemented.
OWASP Testing Guide v2
Here is the OWASP Testing Guide v2 Table of Contents