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Testing for Client Side URL Redirect (OTG-CLIENT-004)
This article is part of the new OWASP Testing Guide v4.
Back to the OWASP Testing Guide v4 ToC: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Guide_v4_Table_of_Contents Back to the OWASP Testing Guide Project: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Project
This section describes how to check for Client Side URL Redirection, also known as Open Redirection. It is an input validation flaw that exists when an application accepts an user controlled input which specifies a link that leads to an external URL that could be malicious. This kind of vulnerability could be used to accomplish a phishing attack or redirect a victim to an infection page.
How to Test
This vulnerability occurs when an application accepts untrusted input that contains an URL value without sanitizing it. This URL value could cause the web application to redirect the user to another page as, for example, a malicious page controlled by the attacker.
By modifying untrusted URL input to a malicious site, an attacker may successfully launch a phishing scam and steal user credentials. Since the redirection is originated by the real application, the phishing attempts may have a more trustworthy appearance.
A phishing attack example could be the following:
The victim that visits target.site will be automatically redirected to fake-target.site where an attacker could place a fake page to steal victim's credentials.
Moreover open redirections could also be used to maliciously craft an URL that would bypass the application’s access control checks and then forward the attacker to privileged functions that they would normally not be able to access.
Black Box testing
Black box testing for Client Side URL Redirect is not usually performed since access to the source code is always available as it needs to be sent to the client to be executed.
Gray Box testing
Testing for Client Side URL Redirect vulnerabilities:
var redir = location.hash.substring(1); if (redir) window.location='http://'+decodeURIComponent(redir);
In the previous example the script does not perform any validation of the variable “redir”, that contains the user supplied input via the query string, and in the same time does not apply any form of encoding, then this unvalidated input is passed to the windows.location object originating a URL redirection vulnerability.
This implies that an attacker could redirect the victim to a malicious site simply by submitting the following query string:
Note how, if the vulnerable code is the following:
var redir = location.hash.substring(1); if (redir) window.location=decodeURIComponent(redir);
When trying to check for this kind of issues, consider that some characters are treated differently by different browsers.
Moreover always consider the possibility to try absolute URLs variants as described here: http://kotowicz.net/absolute/
- DOMinator - https://dominator.mindedsecurity.com/
- Browser location/document URI/URL Sources - https://code.google.com/p/domxsswiki/wiki/LocationSources
- i.e., what is returned when you ask the browser for things like document.URL, document.baseURI, location, location.href, etc.
- Krzysztof Kotowicz: "Local or External? Weird URL formats on the loose" - http://kotowicz.net/absolute/