Testing WebSockets

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This article is part of the new OWASP Testing Guide v4.
Back to the OWASP Testing Guide v4 ToC: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Guide_v4_Table_of_Contents Back to the OWASP Testing Guide Project: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Project

Brief Summary

Traditionally the HTTP protocol only allows one request/response per TCP connection. Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) allowed clients to send and receive data asynchronously (in the background without a page refresh) to the server, however, AJAX requires the client to initiate the requests and wait for the server responses (half-duplex). HTML5 WebSockets allow the client/server to create a 'full-duplex' (two-way) communication channels, allowing the client and server to truly communicate asynchronously. WebSockets conduct their initial 'upgrade' handshake over HTTP and from then on all communication is carried out over TCP channels by use of frames.

Description of the Issue


It is the server’s responsibility to verify the Origin header in the initial HTTP WebSocket handshake. If the server does not validate the origin header in the initial WebSocket handshake the WebSocket server may accept connections from any origin. This could allow attackers to communicate with the WebSocket server cross-domain allowing for Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) type issues.

Confidentiality and Integrity

The WebSocket URI scheme... ws:// wss://



Input Sanitisation

Black Box testing and example

How to test using black box approach.

Example 1

Example 2

Example 3

Gray Box testing




ZAP is an easy to use integrated penetration testing tool for finding vulnerabilities in web applications. It is designed to be used by people with a wide range of security experience and as such is ideal for developers and functional testers who are new to penetration testing. ZAP provides automated scanners as well as a set of tools that allow you to find security vulnerabilities manually.