Difference between revisions of "Testing: WS Information Gathering (OWASP-WS-001)"

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==Brief Summary==
 
==Brief Summary==
The first step to perform a Web Service Testing is to determine the WS entry points and the communication schema: this is described in the WSDL associated with the WS.
+
The first step to perform a Web Service Test is to determine the WS entry points and the communication schema: this is described in the WSDL associated with the Web Service.
  
 
==Black Box Testing and example==
 
==Black Box Testing and example==
Line 8: Line 8:
 
Normally you will have a WSDL path to access the Web Service, but if you have zero knowledge about it, you will have to use UDDI to find a specific service.
 
Normally you will have a WSDL path to access the Web Service, but if you have zero knowledge about it, you will have to use UDDI to find a specific service.
 
Web Services have three critical building blocks – UDDI, WSDL and SOAP. There is a third intermediate player facilitating communication between the consumer and supplier, referred to as Universal Business Registry (UBR).
 
Web Services have three critical building blocks – UDDI, WSDL and SOAP. There is a third intermediate player facilitating communication between the consumer and supplier, referred to as Universal Business Registry (UBR).
There are several ways to find our WSDL: the easiest one is to make a search Query in public search engine. For example if you have to assess an example.com public WS, on google.com you can type:
+
There are several ways to find our WSDL: the easiest one is to make a search Query in public search engine. For example, if you have to assess an example.com public WS, on google.com you can type:
  
 
  inurl:wsdl site:example.com
 
  inurl:wsdl site:example.com
  
 
and you will find all the public Example WSDL.
 
and you will find all the public Example WSDL.
Net Square wsPawn is a useful tool that acts as Web Services Consumer and makes a query to the UBR and looks for services as per requirements. Then UBR supplies the list of available services. The Web Services Consumer chooses one or more available services. Next, Web Services Consumer requests for an access point or end point for these services. UBR supplies this information. From this moment Web Services Consumer approaches the Web Services Supplier’s Host/IP address (WDSL) and starts accessing service.<br>
+
Net Square wsPawn is a useful tool that acts as Web Services Consumer and makes a query to the UBR and looks for services as per requirements. Then UBR supplies the list of available services. The Web Services Consumer chooses one or more available services. Next, Web Services Consumer requests an access point or end point for these services. UBR supplies this information. From this moment, Web Services Consumer approaches the Web Services Supplier’s Host/IP address (WSDL) and starts accessing service.<br>
  
 
'''WSDL endpoints'''<br>
 
'''WSDL endpoints'''<br>
When a tester accesses to the WSDL, he can determine an access point and available interfaces for web services. These interfaces or methods take inputs using SOAP over HTTP/HTTPS. If these inputs are not defined well at the source code level, they can be compromised and exploited.
+
When a tester accesses the WSDL, he can determine an access point and available interfaces for web services. These interfaces or methods take inputs using SOAP over HTTP/HTTPS. If these inputs are not defined well at the source code level, they can be compromised and exploited.
For example given this WDSL Endpoint:
+
For example given this WSDL Endpoint:
  
 
  http://www.example.com/ws/FindIP.asmx?WSDL
 
  http://www.example.com/ws/FindIP.asmx?WSDL
Line 61: Line 61:
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
'''Web Services Discovery'''<br>
 
'''Web Services Discovery'''<br>
Web Services consumer need a simple and standardized ways to find a Web Services available from from remote servers.
+
Web Services consumer needs a simple and standardized way to find Web Services available from remote servers.
There are two ways for the discovery a Web Services, DISCO and UDDI.<br>
+
There are two ways to discover a Web Service, DISCO and UDDI.<br>
The Web Service Discovery (DISCO) is one way that we can use to discover the URLs WSDL descriptor and other XML documents, like Schema Definition Document (.xsd).<br>   
+
The Web Service Discovery (DISCO) is one way that we can discover the URL's WSDL descriptor and other XML documents, like Schema Definition Document (.xsd).<br>   
 
   
 
   
For istance with a http query to a Web server:   
+
For instance, with an HTTP query to a Web server:   
 
http://myexample.com/myexampleService.asmx?DISCO
 
http://myexample.com/myexampleService.asmx?DISCO
  
we obtain a following one DISCO descriptor:
+
we obtain the following DISCO descriptor:
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 78: Line 78:
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 
<br>
 
<br>
how we can see in the above XML document we have a reference for WSDL document where obtain a descriptions of Web Services available from remote Web Server.
+
We can see in the above XML document we have a reference for a WSDL document, where we can obtain a description of Web Services available from remote Web Server.
  
DISCO is a Microsoft tecnology, UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) instead is a OASIS standard .  
+
DISCO is a Microsoft technology, UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) is an OASIS standard .  
 
<br><br>
 
<br><br>
 
'''WS Well Known Naming'''<br>
 
'''WS Well Known Naming'''<br>
 
Common Web Services  platforms have a naming convention for offering a WSDL documents: This naming convention can be used to retrieve WSDL via URIs probing or through queries to web search server.
 
Common Web Services  platforms have a naming convention for offering a WSDL documents: This naming convention can be used to retrieve WSDL via URIs probing or through queries to web search server.
 
   
 
   
Some URLs that we can use are for example:
+
Some URLs that we can use are, for example:
  
 
  http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename>
 
  http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename>
Line 91: Line 91:
 
  http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename>?wsdl
 
  http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename>?wsdl
 
  http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename>.aspx?wsdl  
 
  http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename>.aspx?wsdl  
  <br>or extenstions .ascx, .asmx, .ashx  
+
  <br>instead of .aspx extension we can also use .ascx, .asmx, .ashx extensions
 
  <br>Same thing with ?disco instead of ?wsdl
 
  <br>Same thing with ?disco instead of ?wsdl
  
Line 107: Line 107:
 
'''Search for public Web Services'''<br>
 
'''Search for public Web Services'''<br>
 
The seekda Web Services Search Engine can help to find a public Web Services with related descriptions.  
 
The seekda Web Services Search Engine can help to find a public Web Services with related descriptions.  
To find Web Services just type the keyword into seekda Web Services Search Engine. We can also browse by several other criteria such as Tag Cloud, Services by Countries, Most Used Services.
+
To find Web Services just type the keyword into seekda Web Services Search Engine. We can also browse by several other criteria such as Tag Cloud, Services by Countries, Most Used Services.
 
http://seekda.com
 
http://seekda.com
 
<br>
 
<br>
Line 120: Line 120:
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
''' UDDI Browser''' <br>
 
''' UDDI Browser''' <br>
A live web server that provide a very useful UDDI on-line tool for to browse and search public UDDI resource in offered from www.soapclient.com.<br>
+
A web server that provides a very useful UDDI on-line tool for to browse and search public UDDI resource in offered from http://www.soapclient.com.<br>
How we can see we can use two operator Microsoft and Xmethods
+
We can see we can use two operators, Microsoft and XMethods
  
 
[[Image:uddi_browser_part.jpg]]
 
[[Image:uddi_browser_part.jpg]]
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
The services offer, for example, to search all UDDI offer from a specific key in business names, service name or service types.
+
The server offers, for example, to search all UDDI with a specific string in business names, service names or service types.<br>
  
We can search private UDDI registries using Avanced feature of UDDI browser.
+
'''Advanced UDDI browsing'''<br>
 +
 
 +
We can search private UDDI registries using the Advanced feature of UDDI browser.
 
<br><br>
 
<br><br>
 
[[Image:uddi_browser.jpg]]
 
[[Image:uddi_browser.jpg]]
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
This services allow interaction with Web services dynamically.<br>  
+
This service allows interaction with Web services dynamically.<br>  
Soapclient offer others methods for to allow to discover web services and usefull links to other resources.
+
Soapclient offer others methods to allow you to discover web services and useful links to other resources.
  
 
<br>
 
<br>
Line 141: Line 143:
 
'''Command line interaction'''
 
'''Command line interaction'''
 
<br>
 
<br>
Sometimes are usefull interact with webservives from a command line.  
+
Sometimes it is useful to interact with webservices from a command line.  
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
Simple SOAP Client - SOAPClient4XG<br>
 
Simple SOAP Client - SOAPClient4XG<br>
SOAP Client for XML allow to make a SOAP request from command line, for example:
+
SOAPClient4XG is a SOAP Client for XML which allows you to make a SOAP request from command line, for example:
 
   
 
   
 
  java -jar SOAPClient4XG http://api.google.com/search/beta2  my_sample_search.xml<br>
 
  java -jar SOAPClient4XG http://api.google.com/search/beta2  my_sample_search.xml<br>
Line 151: Line 153:
  
 
CURL<br>
 
CURL<br>
We can also consume a Webservices using CURL.<br>
+
We can also use a Webservice using CURL.<br>
 
For example:<br>
 
For example:<br>
  
Line 163: Line 165:
 
'''SOAP XML File'''
 
'''SOAP XML File'''
 
<br>
 
<br>
For create a basic SOAP XML file for Webservices request, we can simple use a RAW request and create an SOAP XML request.<br>
+
To invoke web services from command line, we can create a SOAP request file
For example we can create a SOAP XML similar to to the following one to invoke the webservices.<br>  
+
similar to the following one, and then use CURL to submit it to server.<br>  
  
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
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<br>
 
<br>
<br>
 
 
 
 
Creating a malformed XML file we can test a Webservices for a typical attack as the following:<br>
 
Creating a malformed XML file we can test a Webservices for a typical attack as the following:<br>
 
-oversized XML Tag<br>
 
-oversized XML Tag<br>
Line 193: Line 192:
 
-authentication testing<br>
 
-authentication testing<br>
 
-XSS<br>
 
-XSS<br>
 +
-SQL Injection<br>
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
<br>
 
 
* DISCO: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc302073.aspx
 
* DISCO: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc302073.aspx
 
* UDDI OASIS Standard: http://www.oasis-open.org/specs/index.php#uddiv3.0.2
 
* UDDI OASIS Standard: http://www.oasis-open.org/specs/index.php#uddiv3.0.2
* Undestanding UDDI: http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/webservices/library/ws-featuddi/index.html
+
* Understanding UDDI: http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/webservices/library/ws-featuddi/index.html
 
+
* WebServices Testing: http://www.aboutsecurity.net
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
 
'''Tools'''<br>
 
'''Tools'''<br>
 
* Net Square wsPawn
 
* Net Square wsPawn
Line 207: Line 205:
 
* Mac OSX Soap Client: http://www.ditchnet.org/soapclient
 
* Mac OSX Soap Client: http://www.ditchnet.org/soapclient
 
* Foundstone WsDigger: http://www.foundstone.com/us/resources/proddesc/wsdigger.htm
 
* Foundstone WsDigger: http://www.foundstone.com/us/resources/proddesc/wsdigger.htm
 +
* Soaplite: http://www.soaplite.com
 +
* Perl: http://www.perl.com
 +
* SOAPClient4XG: http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/xml/library/x-soapcl/
 +
* CURL: http://curl.haxx.se
 
<br>
 
<br>
'''Web Resource'''<br>
+
'''On-line tools'''<br>
 
* Web Services Directory: http://www.wsindex.org
 
* Web Services Directory: http://www.wsindex.org
 
* Seekda: http://seekda.com/
 
* Seekda: http://seekda.com/
* UDDI Browser: http://www.soapcliet.com/
+
* UDDI Browser: http://www.soapclient.com/
 
* Xmethods: http://www.xmethods.net
 
* Xmethods: http://www.xmethods.net
 
* WSIndex: http://www.wsindex.org
 
* WSIndex: http://www.wsindex.org
<br>
 
* Soaplite: www.soaplite.com
 
* Perl: www.perl.com
 
* SOAPClient4XG: http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/xml/library/x-soapcl/
 

Revision as of 23:05, 30 May 2011

OWASP Testing Guide v3 Table of Contents

This article is part of the OWASP Testing Guide v3. The entire OWASP Testing Guide v3 can be downloaded here.

OWASP at the moment is working at the OWASP Testing Guide v4: you can browse the Guide here

Contents


Brief Summary

The first step to perform a Web Service Test is to determine the WS entry points and the communication schema: this is described in the WSDL associated with the Web Service.

Black Box Testing and example

Zero Knowledge
Normally you will have a WSDL path to access the Web Service, but if you have zero knowledge about it, you will have to use UDDI to find a specific service. Web Services have three critical building blocks – UDDI, WSDL and SOAP. There is a third intermediate player facilitating communication between the consumer and supplier, referred to as Universal Business Registry (UBR). There are several ways to find our WSDL: the easiest one is to make a search Query in public search engine. For example, if you have to assess an example.com public WS, on google.com you can type:

inurl:wsdl site:example.com

and you will find all the public Example WSDL. Net Square wsPawn is a useful tool that acts as Web Services Consumer and makes a query to the UBR and looks for services as per requirements. Then UBR supplies the list of available services. The Web Services Consumer chooses one or more available services. Next, Web Services Consumer requests an access point or end point for these services. UBR supplies this information. From this moment, Web Services Consumer approaches the Web Services Supplier’s Host/IP address (WSDL) and starts accessing service.

WSDL endpoints
When a tester accesses the WSDL, he can determine an access point and available interfaces for web services. These interfaces or methods take inputs using SOAP over HTTP/HTTPS. If these inputs are not defined well at the source code level, they can be compromised and exploited. For example given this WSDL Endpoint:

http://www.example.com/ws/FindIP.asmx?WSDL

you can obtain the following description of the Web Services:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<wsdl:definitions xmlns:http="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/http/" xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap/" xmlns:s="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:soapenc="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/" xmlns:tns="http://example.com/webservices/" xmlns:tm="http://microsoft.com/wsdl/mime/textMatching/" xmlns:mime="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/mime/" targetNamespace="http://example.com/webservices/" xmlns:wsdl="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/">
  <wsdl:types>
    <s:schema elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://example.com/webservices/">
      <s:element name="GetURLIP">
        <s:complexType>
          <s:sequence>
            <s:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" name="EnterURL" type="s:string" />
          </s:sequence>
        </s:complexType>
      </s:element>
      <s:element name="GetURLIPResponse">
        <s:complexType>
          <s:sequence>
            <s:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" name="GetURLIPResult" type="s:string" />
          </s:sequence>
        </s:complexType>
      </s:element>
      <s:element name="string" nillable="true" type="s:string" />
    </s:schema>
  </wsdl:types>
  <wsdl:message name="GetURLIPSoapIn">
    <wsdl:part name="parameters" element="tns:GetURLIP" />
  </wsdl:message>
  <wsdl:message name="GetURLIPSoapOut">
    <wsdl:part name="parameters" element="tns:GetURLIPResponse" />
  </wsdl:message>
  <wsdl:message name="GetURLIPHttpGetIn">
    <wsdl:part name="EnterURL" type="s:string" />
……
  </wsdl:service>
</wsdl:definitions>

This WS simply receives in input a logical name (EnterURL) and gives in output the realtive IP Address. So we have GetURLIP as method for the WS and EnterURL (string) as input. In that manner we have identified the WS entry point and we are ready to test it.

Web Services Discovery
Web Services consumer needs a simple and standardized way to find Web Services available from remote servers. There are two ways to discover a Web Service, DISCO and UDDI.
The Web Service Discovery (DISCO) is one way that we can discover the URL's WSDL descriptor and other XML documents, like Schema Definition Document (.xsd).

For instance, with an HTTP query to a Web server: http://myexample.com/myexampleService.asmx?DISCO

we obtain the following DISCO descriptor:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<discovery xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/disco/">
  <contractRef ref="http://myexample.com/MyexampleService.asmx?wsdl" docRef="http://myexample.com/myexample.asmx" xmlns="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/disco/scl/" />
  <soap address="http://myexample.com/MyexampleService.asmx" xmlns:q1="http://myexample.com/terraserver/" binding="q1:myexampleServiceSoap" xmlns="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/disco/soap/" />
</discovery>


We can see in the above XML document we have a reference for a WSDL document, where we can obtain a description of Web Services available from remote Web Server.

DISCO is a Microsoft technology, UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) is an OASIS standard .

WS Well Known Naming
Common Web Services platforms have a naming convention for offering a WSDL documents: This naming convention can be used to retrieve WSDL via URIs probing or through queries to web search server.

Some URLs that we can use are, for example:

http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename>
http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename>.wsdl
http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename>?wsdl
http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename>.aspx?wsdl 

instead of .aspx extension we can also use .ascx, .asmx, .ashx extensions
Same thing with ?disco instead of ?wsdl
http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename.dll>?wsdl
http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename.exe>?wsdl 
http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename.php>?wsdl
http://<webservice-host>:<port>/<servicename.pl>?wsdl

For Apache Axis we can try:

http://<webservice-host>:<port>/axis/services/<servicename>?wsdl
http://<webservice-host>:<port>/axis/services/<service-name>



Search for public Web Services
The seekda Web Services Search Engine can help to find a public Web Services with related descriptions. To find Web Services just type the keyword into seekda Web Services Search Engine. We can also browse by several other criteria such as Tag Cloud, Services by Countries, Most Used Services. http://seekda.com

Seekda.jpg


Another Web Server with good links and Resources is WSindex (http://www.wsindex.org).

Wsindex.png

UDDI Browser
A web server that provides a very useful UDDI on-line tool for to browse and search public UDDI resource in offered from http://www.soapclient.com.
We can see we can use two operators, Microsoft and XMethods

Uddi browser part.jpg

The server offers, for example, to search all UDDI with a specific string in business names, service names or service types.

Advanced UDDI browsing

We can search private UDDI registries using the Advanced feature of UDDI browser.

Uddi browser.jpg

This service allows interaction with Web services dynamically.
Soapclient offer others methods to allow you to discover web services and useful links to other resources.



Command line interaction
Sometimes it is useful to interact with webservices from a command line.

Simple SOAP Client - SOAPClient4XG
SOAPClient4XG is a SOAP Client for XML which allows you to make a SOAP request from command line, for example:

java -jar SOAPClient4XG http://api.google.com/search/beta2  my_sample_search.xml


CURL
We can also use a Webservice using CURL.
For example:

curl --request POST --header “Content-type: text/xml 
--data @my_request.xml http://api.google.com/search/beta2

Perl - SOAPlite
With Perl and SOAP::lite modules we can create a scripts to automatize a SOAP request.


SOAP XML File
To invoke web services from command line, we can create a SOAP request file similar to the following one, and then use CURL to submit it to server.

<SOAP-ENV:Envelope
  xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"
  SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/">
 
  <SOAP-ENV:Body>

   <m:GetZip xmlns:m="http://namespaces.example.com">    
     <country>Italy</country>
     <city>Roma</city>
   </m:GetZip>

  </SOAP-ENV:Body>

</SOAP-ENV:Envelope>


Creating a malformed XML file we can test a Webservices for a typical attack as the following:
-oversized XML Tag
-nested or recursive declarations
-parameter attack
-authentication testing
-XSS
-SQL Injection

References


Tools


On-line tools