Difference between revisions of "Testing: Information Gathering"

From OWASP
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Minor changes (spelling and grammar))
m
Line 4: Line 4:
 
=== Information Gathering ===
 
=== Information Gathering ===
 
----
 
----
The  first phase in security assessment is focused on collecting all the information about a target application.
+
The  first phase in security assessment is focused on collecting as much information as possible about a target application.
 
Information Gathering is a necessary step of a penetration test.
 
Information Gathering is a necessary step of a penetration test.
  
This task can be carried out by using many different ways.
+
This task can be carried out in many different ways.
  
Using public tools (search engines), scanners, sending simple HTTP requests, or specially crafted requests, it is possible to force the application to leak information by sending back error messages, revealing the versions and technologies used by the application.<br>
+
Using public tools (search engines), scanners, sending simple HTTP requests, or specially crafted requests, it is possible to force the application to leak information by sending back error messages or revealing the versions and technologies used by the application.<br>
  
Often it is possible to gather information by receiving a response from the application which, as a consequence of bad default configuration of the application server or web server, could reveal vulnerabilities in the configuration or bad server management.
+
Often it is possible to gather information by receiving a response from the application that, as a consequence of bad default configuration of the application server or web server, could reveal vulnerabilities in the configuration or bad server management.
  
 
[[Application Discovery AoC|4.2.1 Application Fingerprint]]
 
[[Application Discovery AoC|4.2.1 Application Fingerprint]]
Line 20: Line 20:
  
 
Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.<br>
 
Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.<br>
This analysis is important because many times there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend so a discovery analysis would be useful to reveal details such as web-apps used for administrative purposes, old versions of files or artifacts (such as scripts not properly deleted after their usage while crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintenance).
+
This analysis is important because many times there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend. Discovery analysis can be useful to reveal details such as web-apps used for administrative purposes. In addition, it can reveal old versions of files or artifacts such as undeleted, obsolete scripts crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintenance.
  
 
[[Spidering and googling AoC|4.2.3 Spidering and googling]]
 
[[Spidering and googling AoC|4.2.3 Spidering and googling]]
  
This phase of the Information Gathering process consists of browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested. Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application that are usually found after being exposed to the public domain.
+
This phase of the Information Gathering process consists of browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested. Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application that have been exposed to the public domain.
  
 
[[Testing for Error Code|4.2.4 Analysis of error code]]
 
[[Testing for Error Code|4.2.4 Analysis of error code]]
  
Web applications may divulge information during a penetration test which is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information (such as error codes) can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.<br>
+
Web applications may divulge information during a penetration test which is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information such as error codes can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.<br>
 
Such error codes can be easy to exploit without using any particular skill due to bad error handling strategy.
 
Such error codes can be easy to exploit without using any particular skill due to bad error handling strategy.
  
 
[[Infrastructure configuration management testing AoC|4.2.5 Infrastructure configuration management testing]]
 
[[Infrastructure configuration management testing AoC|4.2.5 Infrastructure configuration management testing]]
  
Often analysis of the infrastructure and topology architecture can reveal a lot of information about a web application such as source code, HTTP methods permitted, administrative functionalities, authentication methods and infrastructural configurations.<br>
+
Often analysis of the infrastructure and topology architecture can reveal a great deal about a web application. Information such as source code, HTTP methods permitted, administrative functionality, authentication methods and infrastructural configurations can be obtained.<br>
For those reasons, focusing only on the web application will not be an exhaustive test, considering the fact that the information collected during the security assessment could not be as exhaustive as the information possibly gathered by performing a wider test comprehensible to an infrastructure analysis.   
+
Clearly, focusing only on the web application will not be an exhaustive test. It cannot be as comprehensive as the information possibly gathered by performing a broader infrastructure analysis.   
  
 
[[SSL/TLS Testing AoC|4.2.5.1 SSL/TLS Testing]]
 
[[SSL/TLS Testing AoC|4.2.5.1 SSL/TLS Testing]]
  
SSL and TLS are two protocols which provide, with the support of the cryptography, a secure channel for the communications to protect the confidentiality & authentication of the information and a secure channel.<br>
+
SSL and TLS are two protocols that provide, with the support of cryptography, secure channels for the protection, confidentiality, and authentication of the information being transmitted.<br>
Considering the importance of those security implementations it is important to verify the usage of a strong cipher algorithm and its proper implementation has been performed.
+
Considering the criticality of these security implementations, it is important to verify the usage of a strong cipher algorithm and its proper implementation.
  
 
[[DB Listener Testing AoC|4.2.5.2 DB Listener Testing]]
 
[[DB Listener Testing AoC|4.2.5.2 DB Listener Testing]]
  
During the configuration of a database server, many DB administrators do not consider the importance around the lack of security of the DB Listener component. It could reveal sensible data as well as the configuration settings or database instances running.<br>
+
During the configuration of a database server, many DB administrators do not adequately consider the security of the DB listener component. The listener could reveal sensitive data as well as configuration settings or running database instances.<br>
The collection of this information could provide some useful hints needed to compromise the reservedness, integrity and availability of the data stored.<br>
+
This information could provide some useful hints needed to compromise the reservedness, integrity and availability of the stored data. An accurate security analysis of the DB listener configuration can allow for the acquisition this information.
An accurate security analysis of the DB listener configuration can allow for the acquisition this information.
+
  
 
[[Application configuration management testing AoC|4.2.6 Application configuration management testing]]
 
[[Application configuration management testing AoC|4.2.6 Application configuration management testing]]
  
The web applications hide some information which is usually are not considered during the development or configuration of the application itself.<br>
+
Web applications hide some information that is usually not considered during the development or configuration of the application itself.<br>
This data can be discovered in the source code, in the log files or in the default error codes of the web servers so a correct approach to this topic is fundamental during a security assessment.
+
This data can be discovered in the source code, in the log files or in the default error codes of the web servers. A correct approach to this topic is fundamental during a security assessment.
  
 
[[File extensions handling AoC|4.2.6.1 File extensions handling]]
 
[[File extensions handling AoC|4.2.6.1 File extensions handling]]
  
By observing the file extensions present in a web server or a web-app, it is possible to identify the technologies which compose the target application (for example jsp and asp extensions in a server-side architecture) and sometimes additional systems connected to the application.
+
The file extensions present in a web server or a web-app make it possible to identify the technologies which compose the target application, e.g. jsp and asp extensions. File extensions can also expose additional systems connected to the application.
  
 
[[Old file testing AoC|4.2.6.2 Old, backup and unreferenced files]]
 
[[Old file testing AoC|4.2.6.2 Old, backup and unreferenced files]]
  
Redundant files which could be present on a web server (such as old, backup and renamed files), which remain freely readable and downloadable, are a big source of information leakage. It is necessary to verify the presence of these files because they may contain parts of source code, installation paths as well as passwords for applications and/or databases.
+
Redundant, readable and downloadable files on a web server, such as old, backup and renamed files, are a big source of information leakage. It is necessary to verify the presence of these files because they may contain parts of source code, installation paths as well as passwords for applications and/or databases.
  
  
  
 
{{Category:OWASP Testing Project AoC}}
 
{{Category:OWASP Testing Project AoC}}

Revision as of 12:07, 12 January 2007

[Up]
OWASP Testing Guide v2 Table of Contents

Contents


Information Gathering


The first phase in security assessment is focused on collecting as much information as possible about a target application. Information Gathering is a necessary step of a penetration test.

This task can be carried out in many different ways.

Using public tools (search engines), scanners, sending simple HTTP requests, or specially crafted requests, it is possible to force the application to leak information by sending back error messages or revealing the versions and technologies used by the application.

Often it is possible to gather information by receiving a response from the application that, as a consequence of bad default configuration of the application server or web server, could reveal vulnerabilities in the configuration or bad server management.

4.2.1 Application Fingerprint

Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.

4.2.2 Application Discovery

Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.
This analysis is important because many times there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend. Discovery analysis can be useful to reveal details such as web-apps used for administrative purposes. In addition, it can reveal old versions of files or artifacts such as undeleted, obsolete scripts crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintenance.

4.2.3 Spidering and googling

This phase of the Information Gathering process consists of browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested. Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application that have been exposed to the public domain.

4.2.4 Analysis of error code

Web applications may divulge information during a penetration test which is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information such as error codes can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.
Such error codes can be easy to exploit without using any particular skill due to bad error handling strategy.

4.2.5 Infrastructure configuration management testing

Often analysis of the infrastructure and topology architecture can reveal a great deal about a web application. Information such as source code, HTTP methods permitted, administrative functionality, authentication methods and infrastructural configurations can be obtained.
Clearly, focusing only on the web application will not be an exhaustive test. It cannot be as comprehensive as the information possibly gathered by performing a broader infrastructure analysis.

4.2.5.1 SSL/TLS Testing

SSL and TLS are two protocols that provide, with the support of cryptography, secure channels for the protection, confidentiality, and authentication of the information being transmitted.
Considering the criticality of these security implementations, it is important to verify the usage of a strong cipher algorithm and its proper implementation.

4.2.5.2 DB Listener Testing

During the configuration of a database server, many DB administrators do not adequately consider the security of the DB listener component. The listener could reveal sensitive data as well as configuration settings or running database instances.
This information could provide some useful hints needed to compromise the reservedness, integrity and availability of the stored data. An accurate security analysis of the DB listener configuration can allow for the acquisition this information.

4.2.6 Application configuration management testing

Web applications hide some information that is usually not considered during the development or configuration of the application itself.
This data can be discovered in the source code, in the log files or in the default error codes of the web servers. A correct approach to this topic is fundamental during a security assessment.

4.2.6.1 File extensions handling

The file extensions present in a web server or a web-app make it possible to identify the technologies which compose the target application, e.g. jsp and asp extensions. File extensions can also expose additional systems connected to the application.

4.2.6.2 Old, backup and unreferenced files

Redundant, readable and downloadable files on a web server, such as old, backup and renamed files, are a big source of information leakage. It is necessary to verify the presence of these files because they may contain parts of source code, installation paths as well as passwords for applications and/or databases.



OWASP Testing Guide v2

Here is the OWASP Testing Guide v2 Table of Contents