Difference between revisions of "Testing: Information Gathering"

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[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Guide_v2_Table_of_Contents#Web_Application_Penetration_Testing Up]]<br>
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{{Template:OWASP Testing Guide v4}}
{{Template:OWASP Testing Guide v2}}
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=== Information Gathering ===
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''' 4.2 Information Gathering '''
 
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The  first phase in security assessment is focused on collecting as much information as possible about a target application.
 
The  first phase in security assessment is focused on collecting as much information as possible about a target application.
Information Gathering is a necessary step of a penetration test.
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Information Gathering is the most critical step of an application security test. The security test should endeavour to test as much of the code base as possible. Thus mapping all possible paths through the code to facilitate thorough testing is paramount.
  
 
This task can be carried out in many different ways.
 
This task can be carried out in many different ways.
  
Using public tools (search engines), scanners, sending simple HTTP requests, or specially crafted requests, it is possible to force the application to leak information by sending back error messages or revealing the versions and technologies used by the application.<br>
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By using public tools (search engines), scanners, sending simple HTTP requests, or specially crafted requests, it is possible to force the application to leak information, e.g., disclosing error messages or revealing the versions and technologies used.<br>
  
Often it is possible to gather information by receiving a response from the application that could reveal vulnerabilities in the bad configuration or bad server management.
 
 
[[Application Discovery AoC|4.2.1 Application Fingerprint]]
 
 
Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.
 
 
[[Application Discovery AoC|4.2.2 Application Discovery]]
 
  
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[[Testing for Application Discovery (OWASP-IG-005)|4.2.5 Application Discovery  (OWASP-IG-005)]] [rename to "Enumerate applications on webserver"]<br>
 
Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.<br>
 
Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.<br>
This analysis is important because many times there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend. Discovery analysis can be useful to reveal details such as web-apps used for administrative purposes. In addition, it can reveal old versions of files or artifacts such as undeleted, obsolete scripts crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintenance.
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This analysis is important because often there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend. Discovery analysis can be useful to reveal details such as web applications used for administrative purposes. In addition, it can reveal old versions of files or artifacts such as undeleted, obsolete scripts, crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintenance.
 
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[[Spidering and googling AoC|4.2.3 Spidering and Googling]]
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This phase of the Information Gathering process consists of browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested. Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application that have been exposed to the public domain.
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[[Testing for Error Code|4.2.4 Analysis of Error Code]]
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Web applications may divulge information during a penetration test which is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information such as error codes can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.<br>
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In many cases, error codes can be easily invoked without the need for specialist skills or tools due to bad exception handling design and coding.
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[[Infrastructure configuration management testing AoC|4.2.5 Infrastructure Configuration Management Testing]]
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Often analysis of the infrastructure and topology architecture can reveal a great deal about a web application. Information such as source code, HTTP methods permitted, administrative functionality, authentication methods and infrastructural configurations can be obtained.<br>
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Clearly, focusing only on the web application will not be an exhaustive test. It cannot be as comprehensive as the information possibly gathered by performing a broader infrastructure analysis. 
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[[SSL/TLS Testing AoC|4.2.5.1 SSL/TLS Testing]]
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SSL and TLS are two protocols that provide, with the support of cryptography, secure channels for the protection, confidentiality, and authentication of the information being transmitted.<br>
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Considering the criticality of these security implementations, it is important to verify the usage of a strong cipher algorithm and its proper implementation.
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[[DB Listener Testing AoC|4.2.5.2 DB Listener Testing]]
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During the configuration of a database server, many DB administrators do not adequately consider the security of the DB listener component. The listener could reveal sensitive data as well as configuration settings or running database instances if insecurely configured and probed with manual or automated techniques. Information revealed will often be useful to a tester serving as input to more impacting follow-on tests.
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[[Testing: Spiders, Robots, and Crawlers  (OWASP-IG-001)|4.2.1 Spiders, Robots and Crawlers (OWASP-IG-001)]] [rename to "Review webserver metafiles" ]
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This phase of the Information Gathering process consists of browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested.  
  
[[Application configuration management testing AoC|4.2.6 Application Configuration Management Testing]]
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[[Testing: Review webpage comments and metadata  (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Review webpage comments and metadata(OWASP-IG-00x)]]
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Review the webpage metadata, HTML, JavaScript comments for sensitive information and disabled links/scripts.
  
Web applications hide some information that is usually not considered during the development or configuration of the application itself.<br>
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[[Testing: Identify application entry points (OWASP-IG-003)|4.2.3 Identify application entry points  (OWASP-IG-003)]]<br>
This data can be discovered in the source code, in the log files or in the default error codes of the web servers. A correct approach to this topic is fundamental during a security assessment.
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Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.  
  
[[File extensions handling AoC|4.2.6.1 File Extensions Handling]]
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[[Testing: Identify application exit/handover points (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Identify application exit/handover points  (OWASP-IG-00x)]]<br>
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Identify the functional exit points of the application and points where the application hands over to another application that may, or may not, be within scope of testing (e.g. handover to a payment gateway).
  
The file extensions present in a web server or a web application make it possible to identify the technologies which compose the target application, e.g. jsp and asp extensions. File extensions can also expose additional systems connected to the application.
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[[Testing: Map paths through the application (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Map paths through the application (OWASP-IG-00x)]]<br>
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Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.  
  
[[Old file testing AoC|4.2.6.2 Old, Backup and Unreferenced files]]
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[[Testing for Web Server Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Testing Web Server Fingerprint  (OWASP-IG-00x)]]<br>
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Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.
  
Redundant, readable and downloadable files on a web server, such as old, backup and renamed files, are a big source of information leakage. It is necessary to verify the presence of these files because they may contain parts of source code, installation paths as well as passwords for applications and/or databases.
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[[Testing for Web Application Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-004)|4.2.4 Testing Web Application Fingerprint  (OWASP-IG-004)]]<br>
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Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.
  
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[[Testing for Error Codes (OWASP-IG-006)|4.2.6 Analysis of Error Codes  (OWASP-IG-006)]]<br>
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During a penetration test, web applications may divulge information that is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information such as error codes can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.<br>
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In many cases, error codes can be easily invoked without the need for specialist skills or tools, due to bad exception handling design and coding.
  
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[[Testing: Search engine discovery/reconnaissance (OWASP-IG-002)|4.2.2 Search Engine Discovery/Reconnaissance  (OWASP-IG-002)]]<br>
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Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application that have been publicly exposed.
  
{{Category:OWASP Testing Project AoC}}
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Clearly, focusing only on the web application will not be an exhaustive test. It cannot be as comprehensive as the information possibly gathered by performing a broader infrastructure analysis.

Latest revision as of 00:27, 8 November 2012

This article is part of the new OWASP Testing Guide v4. 
At the moment the project is in the REVIEW phase.

Back to the OWASP Testing Guide v4 ToC: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Guide_v4_Table_of_Contents Back to the OWASP Testing Guide Project: http://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Project


4.2 Information Gathering


The first phase in security assessment is focused on collecting as much information as possible about a target application. Information Gathering is the most critical step of an application security test. The security test should endeavour to test as much of the code base as possible. Thus mapping all possible paths through the code to facilitate thorough testing is paramount.

This task can be carried out in many different ways.

By using public tools (search engines), scanners, sending simple HTTP requests, or specially crafted requests, it is possible to force the application to leak information, e.g., disclosing error messages or revealing the versions and technologies used.


4.2.5 Application Discovery (OWASP-IG-005) [rename to "Enumerate applications on webserver"]
Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.
This analysis is important because often there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend. Discovery analysis can be useful to reveal details such as web applications used for administrative purposes. In addition, it can reveal old versions of files or artifacts such as undeleted, obsolete scripts, crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintenance.

4.2.1 Spiders, Robots and Crawlers (OWASP-IG-001) [rename to "Review webserver metafiles" ] This phase of the Information Gathering process consists of browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested.

4.2.x Review webpage comments and metadata(OWASP-IG-00x) Review the webpage metadata, HTML, JavaScript comments for sensitive information and disabled links/scripts.

4.2.3 Identify application entry points (OWASP-IG-003)
Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.

4.2.x Identify application exit/handover points (OWASP-IG-00x)
Identify the functional exit points of the application and points where the application hands over to another application that may, or may not, be within scope of testing (e.g. handover to a payment gateway).

4.2.x Map paths through the application (OWASP-IG-00x)
Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.

4.2.x Testing Web Server Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-00x)
Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.

4.2.4 Testing Web Application Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-004)
Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.

4.2.6 Analysis of Error Codes (OWASP-IG-006)
During a penetration test, web applications may divulge information that is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information such as error codes can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.
In many cases, error codes can be easily invoked without the need for specialist skills or tools, due to bad exception handling design and coding.

4.2.2 Search Engine Discovery/Reconnaissance (OWASP-IG-002)
Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application that have been publicly exposed.

Clearly, focusing only on the web application will not be an exhaustive test. It cannot be as comprehensive as the information possibly gathered by performing a broader infrastructure analysis.