Difference between revisions of "Testing: Information Gathering"

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[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/Web_Application_Penetration_Testing_AoC Up]]<br>
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{{Template:OWASP Testing Guide v4}}
{{Template:OWASP Testing Guide v2}}
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=== Information Gathering ===
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''' 4.2 Information Gathering '''
 
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A security testing needs a first phase focused on collecting all the information about a target application. Information Gathering is a necessary step of a penetration test.<br>
 
This task can be carried out by using many different ways.<br>
 
Using public tools (search engines) or false requests, purposely made, it is possible to force the application to send back error messages retreiving the versions and technologies used by the application.<br>
 
Discovering and analyzing the front-end/back-end infrastructure and the application itself with the purpose to collect as much useful information as possible.<br>
 
Oftenly it is possible to gather those information by receiving a response from the application which, as a consequence of default bad configuration in the application server or web server, could show not used or backup files.
 
  
[[Application Discovery AoC|4.2.1 Application Discovery]]
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The  first phase in security assessment is focused on collecting as much information as possible about a target application.
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Information Gathering is the most critical step of an application security test. The security test should endeavour to test as much of the code base as possible. Thus mapping all possible paths through the code to facilitate thorough testing is paramount.
  
Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.<br>
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This task can be carried out in many different ways.
This analysis is important because many times there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend so, a discovery analysis would be useful to reveal details such as, web-apps used for administrative purposes, old versions of files or artifacts as scripts not properly deleted after their usage while crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintainance.
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[[Spidering and googling AoC|4.2.2 Spidering and googling]]
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By using public tools (search engines), scanners, sending simple HTTP requests, or specially crafted requests, it is possible to force the application to leak information, e.g., disclosing error messages or revealing the versions and technologies used.<br>
  
This phase of the Information Gathering process consists in browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested. Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application usually found because exposed to the public domain.
 
  
[[Analisys of error code AoC|4.2.3 Analisys of error code]]
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[[Testing for Application Discovery (OWASP-IG-005)|4.2.5 Application Discovery  (OWASP-IG-005)]] [rename to "Enumerate applications on webserver"]<br>
 
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Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.<br>
Web applications may divulge information during a penetration test which is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information (such as error codes)can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.<br>
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This analysis is important because often there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend. Discovery analysis can be useful to reveal details such as web applications used for administrative purposes. In addition, it can reveal old versions of files or artifacts such as undeleted, obsolete scripts, crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintenance.
Such error codes, can be easy to exploit without using any particular skill due to bad error handling strategy.
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[[Infrastructure configuration management testing AoC|4.2.4 Infrastructure configuration management testing]]
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Oftenly an analysis on the infrastructure and topology architecture can reveal a lot of information about a web application such as source code, HTTP methods permitted, administrative functionalities, authentication methods and infrastructural configurations.<BR>
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For those reasons focusing only on the web application could not be an exhaustive test, considering the fact that those information collected during the security assessment, could not be as exaustive as those possibly gathered performing a wider test comprehensive of an infrastructure analysis. 
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[[SSL/TLS Testing AoC|4.2.4.1 SSL/TLS Testing]]
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SSL and TLS are two protocols which provide, with the support of the cryptography, a secure channel for the communications to protect the confidentiality of the information.<br>
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Considering the importance of those security implementations is needful to verify the presence of a strong cipher alghoritm used and every information collectable during a security assessment. 
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[[DB Listener Testing AoC|4.2.4.2 DB Listener Testing]]
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During the configuration of a database server many DB administrators do not consider the importance of the lack of security of the DB Listener component. It could reveal sensible data as well as configuration settings or database instances running.<br>
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[[Testing: Spiders, Robots, and Crawlers  (OWASP-IG-001)|4.2.1 Spiders, Robots and Crawlers (OWASP-IG-001)]] [rename to "Review webserver metafiles" ]
The collection of those information could provide some useful hints needed to compromise the reservedness, integrity and availability of the data stored.<br>
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This phase of the Information Gathering process consists of browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested.  
An accurate security analysis over DB listener configuration matters permits to acquire those information.  
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[[Application configuration management testing AoC|4.2.5 Application configuration management testing]]
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[[Testing: Review webpage comments and metadata  (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Review webpage comments and metadata(OWASP-IG-00x)]]
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Review the webpage metadata, HTML, JavaScript comments for sensitive information and disabled links/scripts.
  
The web applications hide some information which usally are not considered during the development or the configuration of the application itself.<br>
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[[Testing: Identify application entry points (OWASP-IG-003)|4.2.3 Identify application entry points  (OWASP-IG-003)]]<br>
Those data can be discovered in the source code, in the log files or in the default error codes of the web servers so a correct approach on this topic is fundamental during a security assessment.
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Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.  
  
[[File extensions handling AoC|4.2.5.1 File extensions handling]]
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[[Testing: Identify application exit/handover points (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Identify application exit/handover points  (OWASP-IG-00x)]]<br>
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Identify the functional exit points of the application and points where the application hands over to another application that may, or may not, be within scope of testing (e.g. handover to a payment gateway).
  
Observing the file extension present in a web server and used for a web-app, it is possible to comprehend the technologies which compose the target application (for example jsp and asp extensions in a server-side architecture) and sometimes the others systems connected to it.
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[[Testing: Map paths through the application (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Map paths through the application (OWASP-IG-00x)]]<br>
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Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.  
  
[[Old file testing AoC|4.2.5.2 Old, backup and unreferenced files]]
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[[Testing for Web Server Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Testing Web Server Fingerprint  (OWASP-IG-00x)]]<br>
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Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.
  
The files of a web server (as old, backup and renamed files), freely readble and downloadble are a big source of information so it is necessary to verify the presence of those data because many times contain parts of source code, installation paths as well as passwords for applications and/or databases.
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[[Testing for Web Application Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-004)|4.2.4 Testing Web Application Fingerprint  (OWASP-IG-004)]]<br>
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Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.
  
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[[Testing for Error Codes (OWASP-IG-006)|4.2.6 Analysis of Error Codes  (OWASP-IG-006)]]<br>
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During a penetration test, web applications may divulge information that is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information such as error codes can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.<br>
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In many cases, error codes can be easily invoked without the need for specialist skills or tools, due to bad exception handling design and coding.
  
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[[Testing: Search engine discovery/reconnaissance (OWASP-IG-002)|4.2.2 Search Engine Discovery/Reconnaissance  (OWASP-IG-002)]]<br>
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Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application that have been publicly exposed.
  
{{Category:OWASP Testing Project AoC}}
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Clearly, focusing only on the web application will not be an exhaustive test. It cannot be as comprehensive as the information possibly gathered by performing a broader infrastructure analysis.

Latest revision as of 00:27, 8 November 2012

This article is part of the new OWASP Testing Guide v4. 
At the moment the project is in the REVIEW phase.

Back to the OWASP Testing Guide v4 ToC: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Guide_v4_Table_of_Contents Back to the OWASP Testing Guide Project: http://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Project


4.2 Information Gathering


The first phase in security assessment is focused on collecting as much information as possible about a target application. Information Gathering is the most critical step of an application security test. The security test should endeavour to test as much of the code base as possible. Thus mapping all possible paths through the code to facilitate thorough testing is paramount.

This task can be carried out in many different ways.

By using public tools (search engines), scanners, sending simple HTTP requests, or specially crafted requests, it is possible to force the application to leak information, e.g., disclosing error messages or revealing the versions and technologies used.


4.2.5 Application Discovery (OWASP-IG-005) [rename to "Enumerate applications on webserver"]
Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.
This analysis is important because often there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend. Discovery analysis can be useful to reveal details such as web applications used for administrative purposes. In addition, it can reveal old versions of files or artifacts such as undeleted, obsolete scripts, crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintenance.

4.2.1 Spiders, Robots and Crawlers (OWASP-IG-001) [rename to "Review webserver metafiles" ] This phase of the Information Gathering process consists of browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested.

4.2.x Review webpage comments and metadata(OWASP-IG-00x) Review the webpage metadata, HTML, JavaScript comments for sensitive information and disabled links/scripts.

4.2.3 Identify application entry points (OWASP-IG-003)
Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.

4.2.x Identify application exit/handover points (OWASP-IG-00x)
Identify the functional exit points of the application and points where the application hands over to another application that may, or may not, be within scope of testing (e.g. handover to a payment gateway).

4.2.x Map paths through the application (OWASP-IG-00x)
Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.

4.2.x Testing Web Server Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-00x)
Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.

4.2.4 Testing Web Application Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-004)
Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.

4.2.6 Analysis of Error Codes (OWASP-IG-006)
During a penetration test, web applications may divulge information that is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information such as error codes can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.
In many cases, error codes can be easily invoked without the need for specialist skills or tools, due to bad exception handling design and coding.

4.2.2 Search Engine Discovery/Reconnaissance (OWASP-IG-002)
Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application that have been publicly exposed.

Clearly, focusing only on the web application will not be an exhaustive test. It cannot be as comprehensive as the information possibly gathered by performing a broader infrastructure analysis.