Difference between revisions of "Testing: Conduct search engine discovery/reconnaissance for information leakage (OTG-INFO-001)"

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{{Template:OWASP Testing Guide v3}}
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{{Template:OWASP Testing Guide v4}}
  
'''This is a draft of a section of the new Testing Guide v3'''
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== Summary ==
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There are direct and indirect elements to Search engine discovery and reconnaissance. Direct methods relate to searching the Google Index and remove the associated web content from the Google Cache. Indirect methods relate to gleaning sensitive design and configuration information by searching forums, newsgroups and tendering websites.
  
== Brief Summary ==
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Once the GoogleBot has completed crawling, it commences indexing the web page based on tags and associated attributes, such as <TITLE>, in order to return the relevant search results. [1]
<br>
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This section describes how to retrieve information about the application being tested from the Google Cache and other Search Engines such as Live, Yahoo!, etc.
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<br>
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== Description of the Issue ==
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If the robots.txt file is not updated during the lifetime of the web site, then it is possible for web content not intended to be included in Google's Search Results to be returned.
<br>
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The Google search engine found at http://www.google.com offers many features, including language and document translation; web, image, newsgroups, catalog, and news searches; and more. These features offer obvious benefits to even the most uninitiated web surfer, but these same features offer far more nefarious possibilities to the most malicious Internet users, including hackers, computer criminals, identity thieves, and even terrorists. This article outlines the more harmful applications of the Google search engine, techniques that have collectively been termed "Google Hacking." In 1992, there were about 15,000 web sites, in 2006 the number has exceeded 100 million. What if a simple query to a search engine like Google such as "Hackable Websites w/ Credit Card Information" produced a list of websites that contained customer credit card data of thousands of customers per company? If the attacker is aware of a web application that stores a clear text password file in a directory and wants to gather these targets, then he could search on "intitle:"Index of" .mysql_history" and the search engine will provide him with a list of target systems that may divulge these database usernames and passwords (out of a possible 100 million web sites available). Or perhaps the attacker has a new method to attack a Lotus Notes web server and simply wants to see how many targets are on the internet, he could search on "inurl:domcfg.nsf". Apply the same logic to a worm looking for its new victim.  
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<br>
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== Black Box testing and example ==
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Therefore, it must be removed from the Google Cache.
'''Testing for Topic X vulnerabilities:''' <br>
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...<br>
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== Test Objectives ==
'''Result Expected:'''<br>
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...<br><br>
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To understand what sensitive design and configuration information is exposed of the application/system/organisation both directly (on the organisation's website) or indirectly (on a third party website)
== Gray Box testing and example ==  
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'''Testing for Topic X vulnerabilities:'''<br>
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== How to Test ==
...<br>
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'''Result Expected:'''<br>
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Using a search engine, search for:
...<br><br>
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* Network diagrams and configurations
== References ==
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* Archived posts and emails by administrators and other key staff
'''Whitepapers'''<br>
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* Logon procedures and username formats
...<br>
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* Usernames and passwords
'''Tools'''<br>
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...<br>
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=== Black Box Testing ===
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Using the advanced "site:" search operator, it is possible to restrict Search Results to a specific domain [2].
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Google provides the Advanced "cache:" search operator [2], but this is the equivalent to clicking the "Cached" next to each Google Search Result. Hence, the use of the Advanced "site:" Search Operator and then clicking "Cached" is preferred.
 +
 
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The Google SOAP Search API supports the doGetCachedPage and the associated doGetCachedPageResponse SOAP Messages [3] to assist with retrieving cached pages. An implementation of this is under development by the [[::Category:OWASP_Google_Hacking_Project |OWASP "Google Hacking" Project]].
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==== Example ====
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To find the web content of owasp.org indexed by Google Cache the following Google Search Query is issued:
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<pre>
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site:owasp.org
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</pre>
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[[Image:Google_site_Operator_Search_Results_Example_20121219.jpg]]
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To display the index.html of owasp.org as cached by Google the following Google Search Query is issued:
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<pre>
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cache:owasp.org
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</pre>
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[[Image:Google_cache_Operator_Search_Results_Example_20121219.jpg]]
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=== Gray Box testing and example ===  
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Grey Box testing is the same as Black Box testing above.
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== Tools ==
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[1] FoundStone SiteDigger - http://www.mcafee.com/uk/downloads/free-tools/sitedigger.aspx <br>
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[2] Google Hacker - http://yehg.net/lab/pr0js/files.php/googlehacker.zip<br>
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[3] Stach & Liu's Google Hacking Diggity Project - http://www.stachliu.com/resources/tools/google-hacking-diggity-project/ <br>
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== Vulnerability References ==
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'''Web'''<br>
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[1] "Google Basics: Learn how Google Discovers, Crawls, and Serves Web Pages" - http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?answer=70897 <br>
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[2] "Operators and More Search Help" - http://support.google.com/websearch/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=136861 <br>
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== Remediation ==
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Carefully consider the sensitivity of design and configuration information before it is posted online.
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Periodically review the sensitivity of existing design and configuration information that is posted online.

Revision as of 07:18, 21 July 2013

This article is part of the new OWASP Testing Guide v4. 
At the moment the project is in the REVIEW phase.

Back to the OWASP Testing Guide v4 ToC: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Guide_v4_Table_of_Contents Back to the OWASP Testing Guide Project: http://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Project

Contents


Summary

There are direct and indirect elements to Search engine discovery and reconnaissance. Direct methods relate to searching the Google Index and remove the associated web content from the Google Cache. Indirect methods relate to gleaning sensitive design and configuration information by searching forums, newsgroups and tendering websites.

Once the GoogleBot has completed crawling, it commences indexing the web page based on tags and associated attributes, such as <TITLE>, in order to return the relevant search results. [1]

If the robots.txt file is not updated during the lifetime of the web site, then it is possible for web content not intended to be included in Google's Search Results to be returned.

Therefore, it must be removed from the Google Cache.

Test Objectives

To understand what sensitive design and configuration information is exposed of the application/system/organisation both directly (on the organisation's website) or indirectly (on a third party website)

How to Test

Using a search engine, search for:

  • Network diagrams and configurations
  • Archived posts and emails by administrators and other key staff
  • Logon procedures and username formats
  • Usernames and passwords

Black Box Testing

Using the advanced "site:" search operator, it is possible to restrict Search Results to a specific domain [2].

Google provides the Advanced "cache:" search operator [2], but this is the equivalent to clicking the "Cached" next to each Google Search Result. Hence, the use of the Advanced "site:" Search Operator and then clicking "Cached" is preferred.

The Google SOAP Search API supports the doGetCachedPage and the associated doGetCachedPageResponse SOAP Messages [3] to assist with retrieving cached pages. An implementation of this is under development by the OWASP "Google Hacking" Project.

Example

To find the web content of owasp.org indexed by Google Cache the following Google Search Query is issued:

site:owasp.org

Google site Operator Search Results Example 20121219.jpg

To display the index.html of owasp.org as cached by Google the following Google Search Query is issued:

cache:owasp.org

Google cache Operator Search Results Example 20121219.jpg

Gray Box testing and example

Grey Box testing is the same as Black Box testing above.

Tools

[1] FoundStone SiteDigger - http://www.mcafee.com/uk/downloads/free-tools/sitedigger.aspx
[2] Google Hacker - http://yehg.net/lab/pr0js/files.php/googlehacker.zip
[3] Stach & Liu's Google Hacking Diggity Project - http://www.stachliu.com/resources/tools/google-hacking-diggity-project/

Vulnerability References

Web
[1] "Google Basics: Learn how Google Discovers, Crawls, and Serves Web Pages" - http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py?answer=70897
[2] "Operators and More Search Help" - http://support.google.com/websearch/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=136861

Remediation

Carefully consider the sensitivity of design and configuration information before it is posted online.

Periodically review the sensitivity of existing design and configuration information that is posted online.