Reviewing Code for Logging Issues

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In Brief

Logging is the recording of information into storage that details who performed what and when they did it (like an audit trail). This can also cover debug messages implemented during development, as well as any messages reflecting problems or states within the application. It should be an audit of everything that the business deems important to track about the application’s use. Logging provides a detective method to ensure that the other security mechanisms being used are performing correctly.

There are three categories of logs; application, operation system, and security software. While the general principles are similar for all logging needs, the practices stated in this document are especially applicable to application logs.

A good logging strategy should include log generation, storage, protection, analysis, and reporting.

Log Generation

Logging should be at least done at the following events:

Authentication: Successful and unsuccessful attempts.
Authorization requests.
Data manipulation: Any (CUD) Create, Update, Delete actions performed on the application.
Session activity: Termination/Logout events.

The application should have the ability to detect and record possible malicious use, such as events that cause unexpected errors or defy the state model of the application, for example, users who attempt to get access to data that they shouldn’t, and incoming data that does not meet validation rules or has been tampered with. In general, it should detect any error condition which could not occur without an attempt by the user to circumvent the application logic. Logging should give us the information required to form a proper audit trail of a user's actions.

Leading from this, the date/time actions were performed would be useful, but make sure the application uses a clock that is synched to a common time source. Logging functionality should not log any personal or sensitive data pertaining to the user of function at hand that is being recorded; an example of this is if your application is accepting HTTP GET the payload is in the URL and the GET shall be logged. This may result in logging sensitive data.

Logging should follow best practice regarding data validation; maximum length of information, malicious characters…. We should ensure that logging functionality only logs messages of a reasonable length and that this length is enforced. Never log user input directly; validate, then log.

Log Storage

In order to preserve log entries and keep the sizes of log files manageable, log rotation is recommended. Log rotation means closing a log file and opening a new one when the first file is considered to be either complete or becoming too big. Log rotation is typically performed according to a schedule (e.g. daily) or when a file reaches a certain size.

Log Protection

Because logs contain records of user account and other sensitive information, they need to be protected from breaches of their confidentiality, integrity, and availability, the triad of information security.

Log Analysis and Reporting

Log analysis is the studying of log entries to identify events of interest or suppress log entries for insignificant events. Log reporting is the displaying of log analysis. Although these are normally the responsibilities of the system administrator, an application must generate logs that are consistent and contain info that will allow the administrator to prioritize the records. Logging should create an audit of system events and also be time stamped in GMT as not to create confusion. In the course of reviewing logging transactional events such as Create, Update, or Delete (CUD), business execution such as data transfer and also security events should be logged.

Common open source logging solutions

Log4J: http://logging.apache.org/log4j/docs/index.html

Log4net: http://logging.apache.org/log4net/

Commons Logging: http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/logging/index.html

In Tomcat(5.5), if no custom logger is defined (log4J) then everything is logged via Commons Logging and ultimately ends up in catalina.out. catalina.out grows endlessly and does not recycle/rollover. Log4J provides “Rollover” functionality, which limits the size of the log. Log4J also gives the option to specify “appenders” which can redirect the log data to other destinations such as a port, syslog, or even a database or JMS.

The parts of log4J which should be considered apart from the actual data being logged by the application are contained in the log4j.properties file:

#
# Configures Log4j as the Tomcat system logger
#

#
# Configure the logger to output info level messages into a rolling log file.
#
log4j.rootLogger=INFO, R

#
# To continue using the "catalina.out" file (which grows forever),
# comment out the above line and uncomment the next.
#
#log4j.rootLogger=ERROR, A1

#
# Configuration for standard output ("catalina.out").
#
log4j.appender.A1=org.apache.log4j.ConsoleAppender
log4j.appender.A1.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
#
# Print the date in ISO 8601 format
#
log4j.appender.A1.layout.ConversionPattern=%d [%t] %-5p %c - %m%n

#
# Configuration for a rolling log file ("tomcat.log").
#
log4j.appender.R=org.apache.log4j.DailyRollingFileAppender
log4j.appender.R.DatePattern='.'yyyy-MM-dd
#
# Edit the next line to point to your logs directory.
# The last part of the name is the log file name.
#
log4j.appender.R.File=/usr/local/tomcat/logs/tomcat.log
log4j.appender.R.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
#
# Print the date in ISO 8601 format
#
log4j.appender.R.layout.ConversionPattern=%d [%t] %-5p %c - %m%n

#
# Application logging options
#
#log4j.logger.org.apache=DEBUG
#log4j.logger.org.apache=INFO
#log4j.logger.org.apache.struts=DEBUG
#log4j.logger.org.apache.struts=INFO

Vulnerable patterns examples for Logging

.NET

The following are issues one may look out for or question the development/deployment team. Logging and auditing are detective methods of fraud prevention. They are much overlooked in the industry, which enables attackers to continue to attack/commit fraud without being detected.

They cover Windows and .NET issues.

Check that:

  1. Windows native log puts a timestamp on all log entries.
  2. GMT is set as the default time.
  3. The Windows operating system can be configured to use network timeservers.
  4. By default the event log will show the name of the computer that generated the event and the application in the source field of the viewer. Additional information such as request identifier, username, and destination should be included in the body of the error event.
  5. No sensitive or business critical information is sent to the application logs.
  6. Application logs are not located in the web root directory.
  7. Log policy allows different levels of log severity.

Writing to the Event Log

In the course of reviewing .NET code ensure that calls the EventLog object do not provide any confidential information.

EventLog.WriteEntry( "<password>",EventLogEntryType.Information);

Classic ASP

You can add events to Web server Log or Windows log, for Web Server Log use.

Response.AppendToLog("Error in Processing")

This is the common way of adding entries to the Windows event log.

Const EVENT_SUCCESS = 0
Set objShell = Wscript.CreateObject("Wscript.Shell")
objShell.LogEvent EVENT_SUCCESS, _
  "Payroll application successfully installed."

Notice all the previous bullets for ASP.NET are pretty much applicable for classic ASP as well.


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