OWASP Top 10 Threats and Mitigations Exam - Multiple Select

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Course Title: OWASP Top 10 Threats and Mitigation
Exam Questions - Multiple Select



Which of the following consequences are most likely to occur due to an injection attack? (Choose two.)

  1. Spoofing
  2. Data loss Correct
  3. Denial of service Correct
  4. Insecure direct object references


Which of the following scenarios are most likely to cause an injection attack? (Choose two.)

  1. Unvalidated input is embedded in an instruction stream. Correct
  2. Unvalidated input cannot be distinguished from valid instructions. Correct
  3. A Web application does not validate a client’s access to a resource.
  4. A Web action performs an operation on behalf of the user without checking a shared secret.


Which of the following are the best ways to protect against injection attacks? (Choose three.)

  1. Block list Correct
  2. Allow list Correct
  3. Escaping Correct
  4. Memory size checks
  5. Validate integer values before referencing arrays


Which of the following are most vulnerable to injection attacks? (Choose two.)

  1. Session IDs
  2. Registry keys
  3. Regular expressions Correct
  4. SQL queries based on user input Correct


Which mitigation techniques when used in combination can help you strictly define valid input? (Choose two.)

  1. Allow list Correct
  2. Block list Correct
  3. Table indirection
  4. Escaping


Which of the following architecture-level techniques are the best approaches to prevent attacks based on malicious input? (Choose two.)

  1. Allow list
  2. Table indirection Correct
  3. Escaping
  4. Object class for user input Correct


Which of the following languages are the primary targets of cross-site scripting? (Choose two.)

  1. HTML Correct
  2. SQL
  3. XSLT
  4. JavaScript Correct


Which of the following are the best ways to prevent malicious input exploiting your application? (Choose three.)

  1. Using allow List Correct
  2. Using block list Correct
  3. Using escaping Correct
  4. Using encryption
  5. Using table indirection


Which of the following input sources can be directly controlled by a malicious user? (Choose two.)

  1. Window.location Correct
  2. GET/POST parameters Correct
  3. Server configuration files
  4. Ports and network resources


Which of the following scenarios are most likely to result in broken authentication and session management vulnerabilities? (Choose two.)

  1. Poorly implemented custom code is used. Correct
  2. Misconfigured off-the-shelf code is used. Correct
  3. Unused and unnecessary services, code, and DLLs are disabled.
  4. The HttpOnly flag is set in cookies.


Which of the following actions should you take before implementing a custom authentication and session management system? (Choose two.)

  1. Find out if a suitable framework component already exists. Correct
  2. Find out if you can use a small extension to an existing component to implement the system. Correct
  3. Find out if form variables are available to store data.
  4. Find out if you need to use session-based indirection.


Which of the following functionalities should you include in an authentication and session management system? (Choose two.)

  1. Logout functionality Correct
  2. Inactivity timeout functionality Correct
  3. Escaping functionality
  4. Forwarding system functionality


Which of the following are authentication system mandatory requirements? (Choose three.)

  1. Strong passwords are required. Correct
  2. Use a GOTCHA to prevent automated attacks.
  3. User logout and session inactivity are required. Correct
  4. Session IDs are only accepted from cookies and parameter variables.
  5. Credentials are always protected with encryption or cryptographic salting and hashing. Correct


A session-based system authenticates a user to a Web site to provide access to restricted resources. To increase security in this scenario, an authentication token should meet which of the following requirements? (Choose two.)

  1. It should identify returning users to the site.
  2. It should be used as a replacement for a user's credentials. Correct
  3. It should always use a persistent cookie.
  4. It should always use a non-persistent cookie. Correct


Which of the following tasks are performed by a session-based system? (Choose two.)

  1. Identifying returning users Correct
  2. Providing access to restricted resources Correct
  3. Using the HTTP protocol
  4. Sending successful logins to a well-known location


Which of the following objects are most susceptible to an insecure direct object reference attack? (Choose two.)

  1. Files Correct
  2. Registry keys Correct
  3. Conditional constructs
  4. GET/POST parameters


Which of the following vulnerabilities are most likely to occur due to an insecure direct object reference attack? (Choose two.)

  1. Executing commands on the server.
  2. Impersonating any user on the system.
  3. Modifying SQL data pointed to by the query.
  4. Modifying data without authorization. Correct
  5. Accessing a resource without authorization. Correct


Which of the following are the best ways to mitigate the threat of an insecure direct object reference attack? (Choose two.)

  1. Use session-based indirection. Correct
  2. Use POST parameters instead of GET parameters.
  3. Perform an access check each time a resource identifier arrives as input. Correct
  4. Send successful logins to a well-known location instead of automatic redirection.


Which of the following threats are most likely to be caused by poor input validation? (Choose three.)

  1. Injection Correct
  2. Cross-site scripting Correct
  3. Insecure direct object reference Correct
  4. Insecure cryptographic storage
  5. Insufficient transport layer protection


Which of the following are the most common results of a cross-site request forgery? (Choose three.)

  1. Elevation of privilege Correct
  2. Denial of service Correct
  3. Spoofing and tampering Correct
  4. Enabling of IPSec
  5. Misconfigured or disabled security features


Which of the following are most often associated with a security misconfiguration threat? (Choose two.)

  1. Unused services Correct
  2. Default accounts Correct
  3. Bad cryptography
  4. Unsafe key storage


Which of the following are the best ways to reevaluate your environment and address new threats? (Choose two.)

  1. Add or remove network segments. Correct
  2. Apply the latest service packs, patches, hotfixes, and updates. Correct
  3. Use custom cryptographic algorithms.
  4. Use your browser to forge unauthorized requests.


Which of the following procedures are involved in the hardening process? (Choose two.)

  1. Disable unnecessary features. Correct
  2. Review all settings/configurations. Correct
  3. Repeat the process at random intervals.
  4. Update the environment with changes only when needed.


Which of the following consequences are most likely to result if your production environment does not match your development, testing, and staging environments? (Choose two.)

  1. Your application may not work as expected. Correct
  2. Your application may not authenticate users as expected. Correct
  3. Your application may be expensive to administer.
  4. Your application may have too many configuration files.


Which of the following can result in insecure cryptography? (Choose two.)

  1. Unsalted hash Correct
  2. Unused services
  3. Default accounts
  4. Failure to rotate keys Correct


Which of the following are most likely to result in insecure cryptography? (Choose two.)

  1. Custom cryptographic algorithms Correct
  2. Unsalted hash Correct
  3. New products
  4. Missing patches


Which of the following may result in cryptographic weakness? (Choose three.)

  1. Poor/weak algorithm choice Correct
  2. Custom cryptographic algorithms Correct
  3. Insufficient cryptographic protocols Correct
  4. Missing patches
  5. Unnecessary/unused services or features


Which of the following protocols are network layer encryption protocols? (Choose two.)

  1. SSL Correct
  2. EFS
  3. IPSec Correct
  4. Kerberos


Which of the following factors help you secure keys? (Choose three.)

  1. Complexity Correct
  2. Rotation Correct
  3. Randomness Correct
  4. Encryption


Which of the following depict the typical impact of failure to restrict URL access? (Choose two.)

  1. Attackers access other users’ accounts and data. Correct
  2. Attackers impersonate any user on the system.
  3. Attackers invoke functions and services they have no authorization for. Correct
  4. Attackers perform all actions that the victims themselves have permission to perform.


Which of the following actions should you take to verify the implementation of your Web application? (Choose two.)

  1. Use policy mechanisms.
  2. Use a simple and positive model at every layer.
  3. Verify that each URL in your application is appropriately protected. Correct
  4. Use your browser to forge unauthorized requests. Correct


Which of the following should you use to protect the connections between the physical tiers of your application? (Choose two.)

  1. EFS
  2. SSL Correct
  3. IPSec Correct
  4. Kerberos


Which of the following are the best ways to implement transport layer protection? (Choose two.)

  1. Install IDS
  2. Enable SSL Correct
  3. Set the HttpOnly flag on session ID cookies
  4. Enable IPSec Correct


Which of the following are the best ways to protect a Web application from unvalidated redirects and forwards? (Choose two.)

  1. Validate the referrer header Correct
  2. Use extended validation certificates
  3. Validate all input from the client Correct
  4. Disallow requests to unauthorized file types


In which of the following scenarios should you use the escaping technique? (Choose two.)

  1. When user input is echoed back to the user in HTML Correct
  2. When you need to validate any input as valid input
  3. When you are trying to protect against regular expression injection
  4. When you need to tell the interpreter that input is data and not code Correct


Which of the following are the best ways to prevent unvalidated redirect and forwards vulnerabilities? (Choose two.)

  1. Use an allow list, such as table indirection. Correct
  2. Use client-side validation.
  3. Allow only relative redirects. Correct
  4. Use session-based indirection.