Difference between revisions of "OWASP Cornucopia"

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=Project About=
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<div style="width:100%;height:160px;border:0,margin:0;overflow: hidden;">[[File:Cornucopia-header.jpg|link=]]</div>
{{:Projects/OWASP_Cornucopia}}
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[[Category:OWASP Project]]
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==OWASP Cornucopia==
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OWASP Cornucopia is a mechanism in the form of a card game to assist software development teams identify security requirements in Agile, conventional and formal development processes. It is language, platform and technology agnostic.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==Introduction==
 +
The idea behind Cornucopia is to help development teams, especially those using Agile methodologies, to identify application security requirements and develop security-based user stories. Although the idea had been waiting for enough time to progress it, the final motivation came when [http://www.safecode.org/ SAFECode] published its [http://www.safecode.org/publications/SAFECode_Agile_Dev_Security0712.pdf Practical Security Stories and Security Tasks for Agile Development Environments] in July 2012.
 +
 
 +
The Microsoft SDL team had already published its super [http://www.microsoft.com/security/sdl/adopt/eop.aspx Elevation of Privilege: The Threat Modeling Game] (EoP) but that did not seem to address the most appropriate kind of issues that web application development teams mostly have to address. EoP is a great concept and game strategy, and was [http://blogs.msdn.com/b/sdl/archive/2010/03/02/announcing-elevation-of-privilege-the-threat-modeling-game.aspx published under] a [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution License].
 +
Cornucopia {{#switchtablink:Ecommerce Website Edition|Ecommerce Website Edition}} is based the concepts and game ideas in EoP, but those have been modified to be more relevant to the types of issues ecommerce website developers encounter. It attempts to introduce threat-modelling ideas into development teams that use Agile methodologies, or are more focused on web application weaknesses than other types of software vulnerabilities or are not familiar with STRIDE and DREAD.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==The Card Decks==
 +
 
 +
''Ecommerce Website Edition''
 +
 
 +
Instead of EoP’s STRIDE suits, Cornucopia suits were selected based on the structure of the [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Secure_Coding_Practices_-_Quick_Reference_Guide OWASP Secure Coding Practices - Quick Reference Guide] (SCP), but with additional consideration of sections in the [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Category:OWASP_Application_Security_Verification_Standard_Project OWASP Application Security Verification Standard], the [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Project OWASP Testing Guide] and David Rook’s [http://www.securityninja.co.uk/secure-development/the-principles-place/ Principles of Secure Development]. These provided five suits, and a sixth called “Cornucopia” was created for everything else:
 +
 
 +
* Data validation and encoding
 +
* Authentication
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* Session management
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* Authorization
 +
* Cryptography
 +
* Cornucopia
 +
 
 +
Each suit contains 13 cards (Ace, 2-10, Jack, Queen and King) but, unlike EoP, there are also two Joker cards. The content was mainly drawn from the SCP.
 +
 
 +
''Other Decks''
 +
 
 +
Future editions such as for mobile app development will use different sources of information and suits.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==Mappings==
 +
The other driver for Cornucopia is to link the attacks with requirements and verification techniques. An initial aim had been to reference [http://cwe.mitre.org/ CWE] weakness IDs, but these proved too numerous, and instead it was decided to map each card to [http://capec.mitre.org/ CAPEC] software attack pattern IDs which themselves are mapped to CWEs, so the desired result is achieved.
 +
 
 +
Each card is also mapped to the 36 primary security stories in the [http://www.safecode.org/publications/SAFECode_Agile_Dev_Security0712.pdf SAFECode document], as well as to the OWASP [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Secure_Coding_Practices_-_Quick_Reference_Guide SCP v2], [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Category:OWASP_Application_Security_Verification_Standard_Project ASVS 2009] and [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_AppSensor_Project AppSensor] (application attack detection and response) to help teams create their own security-related stories for use in Agile processes.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==Licensing==
 +
OWASP Corncucopia is free to use. It is licensed under the [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license], so you can copy, distribute and transmit the work, and you can adapt it, and use it commercially, but all provided that you attribute the work and if you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one.
 +
 
 +
&copy; OWASP Foundation
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 +
 
 +
==Other Security Gamification==
 +
If you are interested in using gaming for security, also see [http://www.microsoft.com/security/sdl/adopt/eop.aspx Elevation of Privilege: The Threat Modeling Game] mentioned above, [http://securitycards.cs.washington.edu/ Security Cards] from the University of Washington, the commercial board game [http://www.controlalthack.com/ Control-Alt-Hack] ([http://media.blackhat.com/bh-us-12/Briefings/Kohno/BH_US_12_Kohno_Control_Alt_Hack_Slides.pdf presentation] for latter), and web application security training tools incorporating gamification such as [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Security_Shepherd OWASP Security Shepherd] and [http://itsecgames.blogspot.co.uk/ ITSEC Games].
 +
 
 +
| valign="top"  style="padding-left:25px;width:200px;border-right: 1px dotted gray;padding-right:25px;" |
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== What is Cornucopia? ==
 +
 
 +
OWASP Cornucopia is a card game used to help derive application security requirements during the software development life cycle. To start using Cornucopia:
 +
 
 +
* Download the document
 +
* Print the cards onto plain paper or pre-scored card
 +
* Cut/separate the individual cards
 +
* Identify an application, module or component to assess
 +
* Invite business owners, architects, developers, testers along for a card game
 +
* Get those infosec folk to provide chocolate, pizza, beer, flowers or all four as prizes
 +
* Select a portion of the deck to start with
 +
* {{#switchtablink:How to Play|Play the game}} to discuss &amp; document security requirements (and to win rounds)
 +
* Remember, points make prizes!
 +
 
 +
Listen to the [http://trustedsoftwarealliance.com/2014/03/21/the-owasp-cornucopia-project-with-colin-watson/ OWASP 24/7 Podcast] about Cornucopia.
 +
 
 +
== Presentation ==
 +
 
 +
[[File:Cornucopia-presentation-small.jpg|link=media:Owaspnl-colinwatson-cornucopia.odp]]
 +
 
 +
The game rules are in the document download. But the OpenOffice [[media:Owasplondon-colinwatson-cornucopia.odp|project presentation]] includes an animated version of four demonstration rounds. The presentation is recorded [http://youtu.be/Q_LE-8xNXVk on video].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Project Leader ==
 +
 
 +
Colin Watson
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Related Projects ==
 +
 
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* [[OWASP Secure Coding Practices - Quick Reference Guide]]
 +
* [[:Category:OWASP Application Security Verification Standard Project|OWASP Application Security Verification Standard]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
| valign="top"  style="padding-left:25px;width:200px;" |
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 +
== Quick Download ==
 +
 
 +
*  Cornucopia - Ecommerce Website Edition v1.05 EN A4
 +
** [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/File:OWASP-Cornucopia-Ecommerce_Website.docx DOC]
 +
** [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/File:Owasp-cornucopia-ecommerce_website.pdf PDF]
 +
 
 +
== Reference Files ==
 +
 
 +
* [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/File:OWASP_SCP_Quick_Reference_Guide_v2.pdf OWASP SCP requirements]
 +
* [http://www.owasp.org/images/4/4e/OWASP_ASVS_2009_Web_App_Std_Release.pdf OWASP ASVS verification IDs]
 +
* [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoints OWASP AppSensor attack detection point IDs]
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* [http://capec.mitre.org/data/archive/capec_v1.7.1.zip CAPEC IDs]
 +
* [http://www.safecode.org/publications/SAFECode_Agile_Dev_Security0712.pdf SAFECode security-focused story IDs]
 +
 
 +
The OWASP SCP does not include identity values for the requirements, so please use [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/File:Owasp-requirements-numbering.zip this list].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== News and Events ==
 +
* [03 Apr 2014] Presentation at [[Scotland|OWASP East Scotland, Edinburgh]]
 +
* [21 Mar 2014] v1.04 and v1.05 released
 +
* [03 Mar 2014] Popup Cornucopia [http://lists.owasp.org/pipermail/owasp-london/2014-February/000661.html in Clerkenwell, London]
 +
* [27 Feb 2014] Presentation at [[Manchester|OWASP Manchester]]
 +
* [05 Feb 2014] Cornucopia will be at the [http://www.meetup.com/gamifiers/ Gamifiers] [http://www.meetup.com/gamifiers/events/155078212/ London meetup] at IBM Southbank
 +
* [04 Jan 2014] [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/File:Cornucopia-deck-ecommercewebsite-XML.zip XML data file] published
 +
* [31 Dec 2013] Card tweets now on [https://twitter.com/OWASPCornucopia @OWASP Cornucopia]
 +
* [12 Dec 2013] Presentation at [[London|OWASP London]]
 +
* [20 Nov 2013] Popup Cornucopia at [https://appsecusa.org/ AppSec USA]
 +
* [18 Sep 2013] v1.03 released (stable)
 +
 
 +
==PCIDSS==
 +
[[File:Cornucopia-pcidss-ecommerce-guidelines-small.jpg|link=https://www.pcisecuritystandards.org/pdfs/PCI_DSS_v2_eCommerce_Guidelines.pdf]]
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 +
OWASP Cornucopia Ecommerce Website Edition is referenced in the new [https://www.pcisecuritystandards.org Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council]  information supplement [https://www.pcisecuritystandards.org/pdfs/PCI_DSS_v2_eCommerce_Guidelines.pdf PCI DSS E-commerce Guidelines] v2, January 2013
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==Classifications==
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  {| width="200" cellpadding="2"
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  |-
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  | align="center" valign="top" width="50%" rowspan="2"| [[File:Owasp-incubator-trans-85.png|link=:Category:OWASP_Project#tab=Terminology]]
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  | align="center" valign="top" width="50%"| [[File:Owasp-builders-small.png|link=Builders]] 
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  |-
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  | align="center" valign="top" width="50%"| [[File:Owasp-defenders-small.png|link=Defenders]]
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  |-
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  | colspan="2" align="center"  | [[File:Cc-button-y-sa-small.png|link=http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/]]
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  |-
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  | colspan="2" align="center"  | [[File:Project_Type_Files_DOC.jpg|link=]] 
 +
  |}
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 +
|}
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 +
= Cards =
 +
 
 +
==Printed==
 +
 
 +
[[File:Cornucopia-square-logo-350.jpg|right|link=]]
 +
 
 +
The current version of Cornucopia Ecommerce Website Edition cards (v1.05) can be printed using the following methods:
 +
# Download and self-print the free [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/File:OWASP-Cornucopia-Ecommerce_Website.docx word-processing document] or [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/File:Owasp-cornucopia-ecommerce_website.pdf PDF]
 +
## Print the document onto business card blank cards; or
 +
## Print the document onto normal card and cut the cards out individually using the guide; or
 +
# Generate your own cards from the free [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/File:Cornucopia-deck-ecommercewebsite-XML.zip source XML data file]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Currently you can also request a free deck of cards gifted to the project by [http://blackfootuk.com/ Blackfoot UK Limited] or download their donated print ready artwork:
 +
* Request a free [http://blackfootuk.com/cornucopia/receive-a-set-of-cards/ pack of cards (v1.04)] (gifted by Blackfoot UK)
 +
* Download the free [http://blackfootuk.com/cornucopia/download-artwork/ print-readyartwork (v1.04)] (gifted by Blackfoot UK)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
There are also other ways to obtain particular versions:
 +
* Download the free [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/File:Owasp_cornucopia_printreadyimages.zip PDF (v1.03)] (gifted by Travelex)
 +
** Have the cards commercially printed; or
 +
** Import into your own files (such as [http://lists.owasp.org/pipermail/owasp_cornucopia/2014-January/000018.html this way] suggested by Cam Morris via the mailing list)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
OWASP does not endorse or recommend commercial products or services.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==Twitter==
 +
 
 +
Collect/share/use the pseudo-random cards tweeted twice daily [https://twitter.com/OWASPCornucopia @OWASPCornucopia]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= How to Play =
 +
 
 +
It is possible to play Cornucopia in many different ways. Here is one way.
 +
 
 +
== Primary method ==
 +
 
 +
;A - Preparations
 +
:A1. Print a Cornucopia deck and separate/cut out the cards
 +
:A2. Identify an application or application process to review; this might be a concept, design or an actual implementation
 +
:A3. Create a data flow diagram
 +
:A4. Identify and invite a group of 3-6 architects, developers, testers and other business stakeholders together and sit around a table (try to include someone fairly familiar with application security)
 +
:A5. Have some prizes to hand (gold stars, chocolate, pizza, beer or flowers depending upon your office culture)
 +
;B - Play
 +
:One suit - Cornucopia - acts as trumps. Aces are high (i.e. they beat Kings). It helps if there is someone dedicated to documenting the results who is not playing.
 +
:B1. Remove the Jokers and a few low-score (2, 3, 4) cards from Cornucopia suit to ensure each player will have the same number of cards
 +
:B2. Shuffle the pack and deal all the cards
 +
:B3. To begin, choose a player randomly who will play the first card - they can play any card from their hand except from the trump suit - Cornucopia
 +
:B4. To play a card, each player must read it out aloud, and explain how (or not) the threat could apply (the player gets a point for attacks that work, and the group thinks it is an actionable bug) - don’t try to think of mitigations at this stage, and don’t exclude a threat just because it is believed it is already mitigated - someone record the card on the score sheet
 +
:B5. Play clockwise, each person must play a card in the same way; if you have any card of the matching lead suit you must play one of those, otherwise they can play a card from any other suit. Only a higher card of the same suit, or the highest card in the trump suit Cornucopia, wins the hand.
 +
:B6. The person who wins the round, leads the next round (i.e. they play first), and thus defines the next lead suit
 +
:B7. Repeat until all the cards are played
 +
;C - Scoring
 +
:The objective is to identify applicable threats, and win hands (rounds):
 +
:C1. Score +1 for each card you can identify as a valid threat to the application under consideration
 +
:C2. Score +1 if you win a round
 +
:C3. Once all cards have been played, whoever has the most points wins
 +
;D - Closure
 +
:D1. Review all the applicable threats and the matching security requirements
 +
:D2. Create user stories, specifications and test cases as required for your development methodology
 +
 
 +
Alternative game rules:
 +
 
 +
* If you are new to the game, remove the two Joker cards to begin with. Add the Joker cards back in once people become more familiar with the process. Apart from the “trumps card game” rules described above which are very similar to the EoP, the deck can also be played as the “twenty-one card game” (also known as “pontoon” or “blackjack”) which normally reduces the number of cards played in each round.
 +
* Practice on an imaginary application, or even a future planned application, rather than trying to find fault with existing applications until the participants are happy with the usefulness of the game.
 +
* Consider just playing with one suit to make a shorter session – but try to cover all the suits for every project. Or even better just play one hand with some pre-selected cards, and score only on the ability to identify security requirements. Perhaps have one game of each suit each day for a week or so, if the participants cannot spare long enough for a full deck.
 +
* Some teams have preferred to play a full hand of cards, and then discuss what is on the cards after each round (instead of after each person plays a card).
 +
* Another suggestion is that if a player fails to identify the card is relevant, allow other players to suggest ideas, and potentially let them gain the point for the card. Consider allowing extra points for especially good contributions.
 +
* You can even play by yourself. Just use the cards to act as thought-provokers. Involving more people will be beneficial though.
 +
* In Microsoft's EoP guidance, they recommend cheating as a good game strategy
 +
 
 +
=FAQs=
 +
; Can I copy or edit the game?
 +
:Yes of course. All OWASP materials are free to do with as you like provided you comply with the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license. Perhaps if you create a new version, you might donate it to the OWASP Cornucopia Project?
 +
 
 +
; How can I get involved?
 +
: Please send ideas or offers of help to the project’s mailing list.
 +
 
 +
; How were the attackers’ names chosen?
 +
: EoP begins every description with words like "An attacker can...". These have to be phrased as an attack but I was not keen on the anonymous terminology, wanting something more engaging, and therefore used personal names. These can be thought of as external or internal people or aliases for computer systems. But instead of just random names, I thought how they might reflect the OWASP community aspect. Therefore, apart from "Alice and Bob", I use the given (first) names of current and recent OWASP employees and Board members (assigned in no order), and then randomly selected the remaining 50 or so names from the current list of paying individual OWASP members. No name was used more than once, and where people had provided two personal names, I dropped one part to try to ensure no-one can be easily identified. Names were not deliberately allocated to any particular attack, defence or requirement. The cultural and gender mix simply reflects theses sources of names, and is not meant to be world-representative.
 +
 
 +
; Why aren’t there any images on the card faces?
 +
: There is quite a lot of text on the cards, and the cross-referencing takes up space too. But it would be great to have additional design elements included. Any volunteers?
 +
 
 +
; Are the attacks ranked by the number on the card?
 +
: Only approximately. The risk will be application and organisation dependent, due to varying security and compliance requirements, so your own severity rating may place the cards in some other order than the numbers on the cards.
 +
 
 +
; How long does it take to play a round of cards using the full deck?
 +
: This depends upon the amount of discussion and how familiar the players are with application security concepts. But perhaps allow 1.5 to 2.0 hours for 4-6 people.
 +
 
 +
; What sort of people should play the game?
 +
:Always try to have a mix of roles who can contribute alternative perspectives. But include someone who has a reasonable knowledge of application vulnerability terminology. Otherwise try to include a mix of architects, developers, testers and a relevant project manager or business owner.
 +
 
 +
; Who should take notes and record scores?
 +
: It is better if that someone else, not playing the game, takes notes about the requirements identified and issues discussed. This could be used as training for a more junior developer, or performed by the project manager. Some organisations have made a recording to review afterwards when the requirements are written up more formally.
 +
 
 +
; Should we always use the full deck of cards?
 +
: No. A smaller deck is quicker to play. Start your first game with only enough cards for two or three rounds. Always consider removing cards that are not appropriate at all of the target application or function being reviewed. For the first few times people play the game it is also usually better to remove the Aces and the two Jokers. It is also usual to play the game without any trumps suit until people are more familiar with the idea.
 +
 
 +
; What should players do when they have an Ace card that says “invented a new X attack”?
 +
: The player can make up any attack they think is valid, but must match the suit of the card e.g. data validation and encoding). With players new to the game, it can be better to remove these to begin with.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
= Acknowledgements =
 +
==Volunteers==
 +
Cornucopia is developed, maintained, updated and promoted by a worldwide team of volunteers. The contributors to date have been:
 +
 
 +
* Simon Bennetts
 +
* Tobias Gondrom
 +
* Anthony Harrison
 +
* Ken Ferris
 +
* Jim Manico
 +
* Mark Miller
 +
* Cam Morris
 +
* Stephen de Vries
 +
* Colin Watson
 +
 
 +
Also:
 +
 
 +
* OWASP’s hard-working employees
 +
* Attendees at OWASP London, OWASP Manchester and OWASP Netherlands chapter meetings, and the London Gamification meetup, who made helpful suggestions and asked challenging questions
 +
* Blackfoot UK Limited for gifting print-ready design files and scores of professionally printed card decks for distribution at OWASP chapter meetings
 +
 
 +
==Others==
 +
* Microsoft SDL Team for the Elevation of Privilege Threat Modelling Game, published under a Creative Commons Attribution license, as the inspiration for Cornucopia and from which many ideas, especially the game theory, were copied.
 +
* Keith Turpin and contributors to the “OWASP Secure Coding Practices - Quick Reference Guide”, originally donated to OWASP by Boeing, which is used as the primary source of security requirements information to formulate the content of the cards.
 +
* Contributors, supporters, sponsors and volunteers to the OWASP ASVS, AppSensor and Web Framework Security Matrix projects, Mitre’s Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and Classification (CAPEC), and SAFECode’s “Practical Security Stories and Security Tasks for Agile Development Environments” which are all used in the cross-references provided.
 +
* Playgen for providing an illuminating afternoon seminar on task gamification, and tartanmaker.com for the online tool to help create the card back pattern.
 +
 
 +
= Road Map and Getting Involved =
 +
Version history (see [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/File:OWASP-Cornucopia-Ecommerce_Website.docx uploads]):
 +
* Alpha version (0.40) was issued in August 2012
 +
* Beta version (1.00) was released in February 2013
 +
* Stable release (1.02) was released in August 2013, following feedback from mailing list and use with groups of developers
 +
* Release v1.03 included minor changes
 +
* Release v1.04 included a text correction on one card
 +
* Current release v1.05 included additional narrative and FAQs
 +
 
 +
As of March 2014, the priorities are:
 +
* Create and publish the Secure Coding Practices Quick Reference Guide identities used in the cross-referencing [Completed 10 May 2013]
 +
* Build these project wiki pages out [Completed 19 May 2013]
 +
* Include darker card yellow, green and grey colours, custom decks and cutting lines [Completed 12 June 2013, and updated further 18 September 2013]
 +
* Update the document/deck to shorten some card text
 +
* Map to OWASP T10 2013 and ASVS v2
 +
* Translate into French, Japanese, Spanish and other languages
 +
* Source funding for graphical design [Completed 1 Feb 2014]
 +
* Promote use of Cornucopia [In progress]
 +
 
 +
Involvement in the development and promotion of Cornucopia is actively encouraged!
 +
You do not have to be a security expert in order to contribute.
 +
Some of the ways you can help:
 +
==Localization==
 +
Are you fluent in another language? Can you help translate Cornucopia into that language?
 +
==Use and Promote the Cornucopia Card Decks==
 +
Please help raise awareness of Cornucopia by printing cards:
 +
* Use Cornucopia with specifiers, architects, designers, developers, testers and others, in part to train them, but also to solicit feedback on their usability, practicality and appropriateness for their work
 +
* Create video about how to play the game
 +
* Develop a mobile app to play the game
 +
==Feedback==
 +
Please use the [https://lists.owasp.org/mailman/listinfo/owasp_cornucopia friendly project mailing list] for feedback:
 +
* What do like?
 +
* What don't you like?
 +
* What cards don't make sense?
 +
* How could the guidance be improved?
 +
* What other decks would you like to see?
 +
==Keep the Cards Updated==
 +
As the source referenced documents change, we have to update the decks. You may also find errors and omissions. In the first instance, please send a message to the [https://lists.owasp.org/mailman/listinfo/owasp_cornucopia friendly project mailing list] if you have identified errors &amp; omissions, have some time to maintain the source documents, or can help in other ways.
 +
==Create a New Deck==
 +
The only version currently available is the Cornucopia Ecommerce Website Edition in English. We would like to create a new mobile app specific deck, probably using the wonderful [https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Mobile_Security_Project OWASP Mobile Security Project] as inspiration for the card source materials. Do you have an idea for your own application security requirements card deck? Perhaps for {{#switchtablink:Mobile App Edition|mobile apps}} or something else?
 +
 
 +
= About Ecommerce Website Edition =
 +
{{:Projects/OWASP Cornucopia Ecommerce Website Edition | Project About}}
 +
 
 +
__NOTOC__ <headertabs />
 +
 
 +
[[Category:OWASP Project]]  [[Category:OWASP_Builders]] [[Category:OWASP_Defenders]] [[Category:OWASP_Document]] [[Category:OWASP_Download]]

Latest revision as of 11:35, 21 March 2014

[edit]

Cornucopia-header.jpg

OWASP Cornucopia

OWASP Cornucopia is a mechanism in the form of a card game to assist software development teams identify security requirements in Agile, conventional and formal development processes. It is language, platform and technology agnostic.


Introduction

The idea behind Cornucopia is to help development teams, especially those using Agile methodologies, to identify application security requirements and develop security-based user stories. Although the idea had been waiting for enough time to progress it, the final motivation came when SAFECode published its Practical Security Stories and Security Tasks for Agile Development Environments in July 2012.

The Microsoft SDL team had already published its super Elevation of Privilege: The Threat Modeling Game (EoP) but that did not seem to address the most appropriate kind of issues that web application development teams mostly have to address. EoP is a great concept and game strategy, and was published under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Cornucopia Ecommerce Website Edition is based the concepts and game ideas in EoP, but those have been modified to be more relevant to the types of issues ecommerce website developers encounter. It attempts to introduce threat-modelling ideas into development teams that use Agile methodologies, or are more focused on web application weaknesses than other types of software vulnerabilities or are not familiar with STRIDE and DREAD.


The Card Decks

Ecommerce Website Edition

Instead of EoP’s STRIDE suits, Cornucopia suits were selected based on the structure of the OWASP Secure Coding Practices - Quick Reference Guide (SCP), but with additional consideration of sections in the OWASP Application Security Verification Standard, the OWASP Testing Guide and David Rook’s Principles of Secure Development. These provided five suits, and a sixth called “Cornucopia” was created for everything else:

  • Data validation and encoding
  • Authentication
  • Session management
  • Authorization
  • Cryptography
  • Cornucopia

Each suit contains 13 cards (Ace, 2-10, Jack, Queen and King) but, unlike EoP, there are also two Joker cards. The content was mainly drawn from the SCP.

Other Decks

Future editions such as for mobile app development will use different sources of information and suits.


Mappings

The other driver for Cornucopia is to link the attacks with requirements and verification techniques. An initial aim had been to reference CWE weakness IDs, but these proved too numerous, and instead it was decided to map each card to CAPEC software attack pattern IDs which themselves are mapped to CWEs, so the desired result is achieved.

Each card is also mapped to the 36 primary security stories in the SAFECode document, as well as to the OWASP SCP v2, ASVS 2009 and AppSensor (application attack detection and response) to help teams create their own security-related stories for use in Agile processes.


Licensing

OWASP Corncucopia is free to use. It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license, so you can copy, distribute and transmit the work, and you can adapt it, and use it commercially, but all provided that you attribute the work and if you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one.

© OWASP Foundation


Other Security Gamification

If you are interested in using gaming for security, also see Elevation of Privilege: The Threat Modeling Game mentioned above, Security Cards from the University of Washington, the commercial board game Control-Alt-Hack (presentation for latter), and web application security training tools incorporating gamification such as OWASP Security Shepherd and ITSEC Games.

What is Cornucopia?

OWASP Cornucopia is a card game used to help derive application security requirements during the software development life cycle. To start using Cornucopia:

  • Download the document
  • Print the cards onto plain paper or pre-scored card
  • Cut/separate the individual cards
  • Identify an application, module or component to assess
  • Invite business owners, architects, developers, testers along for a card game
  • Get those infosec folk to provide chocolate, pizza, beer, flowers or all four as prizes
  • Select a portion of the deck to start with
  • Play the game to discuss & document security requirements (and to win rounds)
  • Remember, points make prizes!

Listen to the OWASP 24/7 Podcast about Cornucopia.

Presentation

Cornucopia-presentation-small.jpg

The game rules are in the document download. But the OpenOffice project presentation includes an animated version of four demonstration rounds. The presentation is recorded on video.


Project Leader

Colin Watson


Related Projects


Quick Download

  • Cornucopia - Ecommerce Website Edition v1.05 EN A4

Reference Files

The OWASP SCP does not include identity values for the requirements, so please use this list.


News and Events

PCIDSS

Cornucopia-pcidss-ecommerce-guidelines-small.jpg

OWASP Cornucopia Ecommerce Website Edition is referenced in the new Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council information supplement PCI DSS E-commerce Guidelines v2, January 2013


Classifications

Owasp-incubator-trans-85.png Owasp-builders-small.png
Owasp-defenders-small.png
Cc-button-y-sa-small.png
Project Type Files DOC.jpg

Printed

Cornucopia-square-logo-350.jpg

The current version of Cornucopia Ecommerce Website Edition cards (v1.05) can be printed using the following methods:

  1. Download and self-print the free word-processing document or PDF
    1. Print the document onto business card blank cards; or
    2. Print the document onto normal card and cut the cards out individually using the guide; or
  2. Generate your own cards from the free source XML data file


Currently you can also request a free deck of cards gifted to the project by Blackfoot UK Limited or download their donated print ready artwork:


There are also other ways to obtain particular versions:

  • Download the free PDF (v1.03) (gifted by Travelex)
    • Have the cards commercially printed; or
    • Import into your own files (such as this way suggested by Cam Morris via the mailing list)


OWASP does not endorse or recommend commercial products or services.


Twitter

Collect/share/use the pseudo-random cards tweeted twice daily @OWASPCornucopia


It is possible to play Cornucopia in many different ways. Here is one way.

Primary method

A - Preparations
A1. Print a Cornucopia deck and separate/cut out the cards
A2. Identify an application or application process to review; this might be a concept, design or an actual implementation
A3. Create a data flow diagram
A4. Identify and invite a group of 3-6 architects, developers, testers and other business stakeholders together and sit around a table (try to include someone fairly familiar with application security)
A5. Have some prizes to hand (gold stars, chocolate, pizza, beer or flowers depending upon your office culture)
B - Play
One suit - Cornucopia - acts as trumps. Aces are high (i.e. they beat Kings). It helps if there is someone dedicated to documenting the results who is not playing.
B1. Remove the Jokers and a few low-score (2, 3, 4) cards from Cornucopia suit to ensure each player will have the same number of cards
B2. Shuffle the pack and deal all the cards
B3. To begin, choose a player randomly who will play the first card - they can play any card from their hand except from the trump suit - Cornucopia
B4. To play a card, each player must read it out aloud, and explain how (or not) the threat could apply (the player gets a point for attacks that work, and the group thinks it is an actionable bug) - don’t try to think of mitigations at this stage, and don’t exclude a threat just because it is believed it is already mitigated - someone record the card on the score sheet
B5. Play clockwise, each person must play a card in the same way; if you have any card of the matching lead suit you must play one of those, otherwise they can play a card from any other suit. Only a higher card of the same suit, or the highest card in the trump suit Cornucopia, wins the hand.
B6. The person who wins the round, leads the next round (i.e. they play first), and thus defines the next lead suit
B7. Repeat until all the cards are played
C - Scoring
The objective is to identify applicable threats, and win hands (rounds):
C1. Score +1 for each card you can identify as a valid threat to the application under consideration
C2. Score +1 if you win a round
C3. Once all cards have been played, whoever has the most points wins
D - Closure
D1. Review all the applicable threats and the matching security requirements
D2. Create user stories, specifications and test cases as required for your development methodology

Alternative game rules:

  • If you are new to the game, remove the two Joker cards to begin with. Add the Joker cards back in once people become more familiar with the process. Apart from the “trumps card game” rules described above which are very similar to the EoP, the deck can also be played as the “twenty-one card game” (also known as “pontoon” or “blackjack”) which normally reduces the number of cards played in each round.
  • Practice on an imaginary application, or even a future planned application, rather than trying to find fault with existing applications until the participants are happy with the usefulness of the game.
  • Consider just playing with one suit to make a shorter session – but try to cover all the suits for every project. Or even better just play one hand with some pre-selected cards, and score only on the ability to identify security requirements. Perhaps have one game of each suit each day for a week or so, if the participants cannot spare long enough for a full deck.
  • Some teams have preferred to play a full hand of cards, and then discuss what is on the cards after each round (instead of after each person plays a card).
  • Another suggestion is that if a player fails to identify the card is relevant, allow other players to suggest ideas, and potentially let them gain the point for the card. Consider allowing extra points for especially good contributions.
  • You can even play by yourself. Just use the cards to act as thought-provokers. Involving more people will be beneficial though.
  • In Microsoft's EoP guidance, they recommend cheating as a good game strategy

Can I copy or edit the game?
Yes of course. All OWASP materials are free to do with as you like provided you comply with the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license. Perhaps if you create a new version, you might donate it to the OWASP Cornucopia Project?
How can I get involved?
Please send ideas or offers of help to the project’s mailing list.
How were the attackers’ names chosen?
EoP begins every description with words like "An attacker can...". These have to be phrased as an attack but I was not keen on the anonymous terminology, wanting something more engaging, and therefore used personal names. These can be thought of as external or internal people or aliases for computer systems. But instead of just random names, I thought how they might reflect the OWASP community aspect. Therefore, apart from "Alice and Bob", I use the given (first) names of current and recent OWASP employees and Board members (assigned in no order), and then randomly selected the remaining 50 or so names from the current list of paying individual OWASP members. No name was used more than once, and where people had provided two personal names, I dropped one part to try to ensure no-one can be easily identified. Names were not deliberately allocated to any particular attack, defence or requirement. The cultural and gender mix simply reflects theses sources of names, and is not meant to be world-representative.
Why aren’t there any images on the card faces?
There is quite a lot of text on the cards, and the cross-referencing takes up space too. But it would be great to have additional design elements included. Any volunteers?
Are the attacks ranked by the number on the card?
Only approximately. The risk will be application and organisation dependent, due to varying security and compliance requirements, so your own severity rating may place the cards in some other order than the numbers on the cards.
How long does it take to play a round of cards using the full deck?
This depends upon the amount of discussion and how familiar the players are with application security concepts. But perhaps allow 1.5 to 2.0 hours for 4-6 people.
What sort of people should play the game?
Always try to have a mix of roles who can contribute alternative perspectives. But include someone who has a reasonable knowledge of application vulnerability terminology. Otherwise try to include a mix of architects, developers, testers and a relevant project manager or business owner.
Who should take notes and record scores?
It is better if that someone else, not playing the game, takes notes about the requirements identified and issues discussed. This could be used as training for a more junior developer, or performed by the project manager. Some organisations have made a recording to review afterwards when the requirements are written up more formally.
Should we always use the full deck of cards?
No. A smaller deck is quicker to play. Start your first game with only enough cards for two or three rounds. Always consider removing cards that are not appropriate at all of the target application or function being reviewed. For the first few times people play the game it is also usually better to remove the Aces and the two Jokers. It is also usual to play the game without any trumps suit until people are more familiar with the idea.
What should players do when they have an Ace card that says “invented a new X attack”?
The player can make up any attack they think is valid, but must match the suit of the card e.g. data validation and encoding). With players new to the game, it can be better to remove these to begin with.


Volunteers

Cornucopia is developed, maintained, updated and promoted by a worldwide team of volunteers. The contributors to date have been:

  • Simon Bennetts
  • Tobias Gondrom
  • Anthony Harrison
  • Ken Ferris
  • Jim Manico
  • Mark Miller
  • Cam Morris
  • Stephen de Vries
  • Colin Watson

Also:

  • OWASP’s hard-working employees
  • Attendees at OWASP London, OWASP Manchester and OWASP Netherlands chapter meetings, and the London Gamification meetup, who made helpful suggestions and asked challenging questions
  • Blackfoot UK Limited for gifting print-ready design files and scores of professionally printed card decks for distribution at OWASP chapter meetings

Others

  • Microsoft SDL Team for the Elevation of Privilege Threat Modelling Game, published under a Creative Commons Attribution license, as the inspiration for Cornucopia and from which many ideas, especially the game theory, were copied.
  • Keith Turpin and contributors to the “OWASP Secure Coding Practices - Quick Reference Guide”, originally donated to OWASP by Boeing, which is used as the primary source of security requirements information to formulate the content of the cards.
  • Contributors, supporters, sponsors and volunteers to the OWASP ASVS, AppSensor and Web Framework Security Matrix projects, Mitre’s Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and Classification (CAPEC), and SAFECode’s “Practical Security Stories and Security Tasks for Agile Development Environments” which are all used in the cross-references provided.
  • Playgen for providing an illuminating afternoon seminar on task gamification, and tartanmaker.com for the online tool to help create the card back pattern.

Version history (see uploads):

  • Alpha version (0.40) was issued in August 2012
  • Beta version (1.00) was released in February 2013
  • Stable release (1.02) was released in August 2013, following feedback from mailing list and use with groups of developers
  • Release v1.03 included minor changes
  • Release v1.04 included a text correction on one card
  • Current release v1.05 included additional narrative and FAQs

As of March 2014, the priorities are:

  • Create and publish the Secure Coding Practices Quick Reference Guide identities used in the cross-referencing [Completed 10 May 2013]
  • Build these project wiki pages out [Completed 19 May 2013]
  • Include darker card yellow, green and grey colours, custom decks and cutting lines [Completed 12 June 2013, and updated further 18 September 2013]
  • Update the document/deck to shorten some card text
  • Map to OWASP T10 2013 and ASVS v2
  • Translate into French, Japanese, Spanish and other languages
  • Source funding for graphical design [Completed 1 Feb 2014]
  • Promote use of Cornucopia [In progress]

Involvement in the development and promotion of Cornucopia is actively encouraged! You do not have to be a security expert in order to contribute. Some of the ways you can help:

Localization

Are you fluent in another language? Can you help translate Cornucopia into that language?

Use and Promote the Cornucopia Card Decks

Please help raise awareness of Cornucopia by printing cards:

  • Use Cornucopia with specifiers, architects, designers, developers, testers and others, in part to train them, but also to solicit feedback on their usability, practicality and appropriateness for their work
  • Create video about how to play the game
  • Develop a mobile app to play the game

Feedback

Please use the friendly project mailing list for feedback:

  • What do like?
  • What don't you like?
  • What cards don't make sense?
  • How could the guidance be improved?
  • What other decks would you like to see?

Keep the Cards Updated

As the source referenced documents change, we have to update the decks. You may also find errors and omissions. In the first instance, please send a message to the friendly project mailing list if you have identified errors & omissions, have some time to maintain the source documents, or can help in other ways.

Create a New Deck

The only version currently available is the Cornucopia Ecommerce Website Edition in English. We would like to create a new mobile app specific deck, probably using the wonderful OWASP Mobile Security Project as inspiration for the card source materials. Do you have an idea for your own application security requirements card deck? Perhaps for mobile apps or something else?

PROJECT INFO
What does this OWASP project offer you?
RELEASE(S) INFO
What releases are available for this project?
what is this project?
Name: OWASP_Cornucopia Ecommerce Website Edition (home page)
Purpose: Cornucopia is a card game used to help development teams, especially those using Agile methodologies, identify application security requirements and develop security-based user stories. This edition is for ecommerce websites.
License: Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License (best for documentation projects)
who is working on this project?
Project Leader(s):
  • Colin Watson @
how can you learn more?
Project Pamphlet: Not Yet Created
Project Presentation: View
Mailing list: Mailing List Archives
Project Roadmap: [Road Map and Getting Involved View]
Key Contacts
  • Contact Colin Watson @ to contribute to this project
  • Contact Colin Watson @ to review or sponsor this project
  • Contact the GPC to report a problem or concern about this project or to update information.
current release
Not Yet Published
last reviewed release
Not Yet Reviewed


other releases