Guide Table of Contents

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Contents

Frontispiece

    1. Dedication
    2. Copyright and license
    3. Editors
    4. Authors and Reviewers
    5. Revision History

About The Open Web Application Security Project

    1. Structure and Licensing
    2. Participation and Membership
    3. Projects

Introduction

    1. Developing Secure Applications
    2. Improvements in this edition
    3. How to use this Guide
    4. Updates and errata
    5. With thanks

What are web applications?

    1. Technologies
    2. First generation – CGI
    3. Filters
    4. Scripting
    5. Web application frameworks – J
    6. Small to medium scale applications
    7. Large scale applications
    8. View
    9. Controller
    10. Model
    11. Conclusion

Policy Frameworks

    1. Organizational commitment to security
    2. OWASP’s Place at the Framework table
    3. Development Methodology
    4. Coding Standards
    5. Source Code Control
    6. Summary

Secure Coding Principles

    1. Asset Classification
    2. About attackers
    3. Core pillars of information security
    4. Security Architecture
    5. Security Principles

Threat Risk Modeling

    1. Threat Risk Modeling
    2. Performing threat risk modeling using the Microsoft Threat Modeling Process
    3. Alternative Threat Modeling Systems
    4. Trike
    5. AS/NZS
    6. CVSS
    7. OCTAVE
    8. Conclusion
    9. Further Reading

Handling E-Commerce Payments

    1. Objectives
    2. Compliance and Laws
    3. PCI Compliance
    4. Handling Credit Cards
    5. Further Reading

Phishing

    1. What is phishing?
    2. User Education
    3. Make it easy for your users to report scams
    4. Communicating with customers via e-mail
    5. Never ask your customers for their secrets
    6. Fix all your XSS issues
    7. Do not use pop-ups
    8. Don’t be framed
    9. Move your application one link away from your front page
    10. Enforce local referrers for images and other resources
    11. Keep the address bar, use SSL, do not use IP addresses
    12. Don’t be the source of identity theft
    13. Implement safe-guards within your application
    14. Monitor unusual account activity
    15. Get the phishing target servers offline pronto
    16. Take control of the fraudulent domain name
    17. Work with law enforcement
    18. When an attack happens
    19. Further Reading

Web Services

    1. Securing Web Services
    2. Communication security
    3. Passing credentials
    4. Ensuring message freshness
    5. Protecting message integrity
    6. Protecting message confidentiality
    7. Access control
    8. Audit
    9. Web Services Security Hierarchy
    10. SOAP
    11. WS-Security Standard
    12. WS-Security Building Blocks
    13. Communication Protection Mechanisms
    14. Access Control Mechanisms
    15. Forming Web Service Chains
    16. Available Implementations
    17. Problems
    18. Further Reading

Ajax and Other "Rich" Interface Technologies

    1. Objective
    2. Platforms Affected
    3. Architecture
    4. Access control: Authentication and Authorization
    5. Silent transactional authorization
    6. Untrusted or absent session data
    7. State management
    8. Tamper resistance
    9. Privacy
    10. Proxy Façade
    11. SOAP Injection Attacks
    12. XMLRPC Injection Attacks
    13. DOM Injection Attacks
    14. XML Injection Attacks
    15. JSON (Javascript Object Notation) Injection Attacks
    16. Encoding safety
    17. Auditing
    18. Error Handling
    19. Accessibility
    20. Further Reading

Authentication

    1. Objective
    2. Environments Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Best Practices
    5. Common web authentication techniques
    6. Strong Authentication
    7. Federated Authentication
    8. Client side authentication controls
    9. Positive Authentication
    10. Multiple Key Lookups
    11. Referer Checks
    12. Browser remembers passwords
    13. Default accounts
    14. Choice of usernames
    15. Change passwords
    16. Short passwords
    17. Weak password controls
    18. Reversible password encryption
    19. Automated password resets
    20. Brute Force
    21. Remember Me
    22. Idle Timeouts
    23. Logout
    24. Account Expiry
    25. Self registration
    26. CAPTCHA
    27. Further Reading
    28. Authentication

Authorization

    1. Objectives
    2. Environments Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Best Practices
    5. Best Practices in Action
    6. Principle of least privilege
    7. Centralized authorization routines
    8. Authorization matrix
    9. Controlling access to protected resources
    10. Protecting access to static resources
    11. Reauthorization for high value activities or after idle out
    12. Time based authorization
    13. Be cautious of custom authorization controls
    14. Never implement client-side authorization tokens
    15. Further Reading

Session Management

    1. Objective
    2. Environments Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Description
    5. Best practices
    6. Exposed Session Variables
    7. Page and Form Tokens
    8. Weak Session Cryptographic Algorithms
    9. Session Token Entropy
    10. Session Time-out
    11. Regeneration of Session Tokens
    12. Session Forging/Brute-Forcing Detection and/or Lockout
    13. Session Token Capture and Session Hijacking
    14. Session Tokens on Logout
    15. Session Validation Attacks
    16. PHP
    17. Sessions
    18. Further Reading
    19. Session Management

Data Validation

    1. Objective
    2. Platforms Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Description
    5. Definitions
    6. Where to include integrity checks
    7. Where to include validation
    8. Where to include business rule validation
    9. Data Validation Strategies
    10. Prevent parameter tampering
    11. Hidden fields
    12. ASP.NET Viewstate
    13. URL encoding
    14. HTML encoding
    15. Encoded strings
    16. Data Validation and Interpreter Injection
    17. Delimiter and special characters
    18. Further Reading

Interpreter Injection

    1. Objective
    2. Platforms Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. User Agent Injection
    5. HTTP Response Splitting
    6. SQL Injection
    7. ORM Injection
    8. LDAP Injection
    9. XML Injection
    10. Code Injection
    11. Further Reading
    12. SQL-injection
    13. Code Injection
    14. Command injection

Canoncalization, locale and Unicode

    1. Objective
    2. Platforms Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Description
    5. Unicode
    6. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc##
    7. Input Formats
    8. Locale assertion
    9. Double (or n-) encoding
    10. HTTP Request Smuggling
    11. Further Reading

Error Handling, Auditing and Logging

    1. Objective
    2. Environments Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Description
    5. Best practices
    6. Error Handling
    7. Detailed error messages
    8. Logging
    9. Noise
    10. Cover Tracks
    11. False Alarms
    12. Destruction
    13. Audit Trails
    14. Further Reading
    15. Error Handling and Logging

File System

    1. Objective
    2. Environments Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Description
    5. Best Practices
    6. Defacement
    7. Path traversal
    8. Insecure permissions
    9. Insecure Indexing
    10. Unmapped files
    11. Temporary files
    12. PHP
    13. Includes and Remote files
    14. File upload
    15. Old, unreferenced files
    16. Second Order Injection
    17. Further Reading
    18. File System

Distributed Computing

    1. Objective
    2. Environments Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Best Practices
    5. Race conditions
    6. Distributed synchronization
    7. Further Reading

Buffer Overflows

    1. Objective
    2. Platforms Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Description
    5. General Prevention Techniques
    6. Stack Overflow
    7. Heap Overflow
    8. Format String
    9. Unicode Overflow
    10. Integer Overflow
    11. Further reading

Administrative Interface

    1. Objective
    2. Environments Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Best practices
    5. Administrators are not users
    6. Authentication for high value systems
    7. Further Reading

Cryptography

    1. Objective
    2. Platforms Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Description
    5. Cryptographic Functions
    6. Cryptographic Algorithms
    7. Algorithm Selection
    8. Key Storage
    9. Insecure transmission of secrets
    10. Reversible Authentication Tokens
    11. Safe UUID generation
    12. Summary
    13. Further Reading
    14. Cryptography

Configuration

    1. Objective
    2. Platforms Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Best Practices
    5. Default passwords
    6. Secure connection strings
    7. Secure network transmission
    8. Encrypted data
    9. PHP Configuration
    10. Global variables
    11. register_globals
    12. Database security
    13. Further Reading
    14. ColdFusion Components (CFCs)
    15. Configuration

Software Quality Assurance

    1. Objective
    2. Platforms Affected
    3. Best practices
    4. Process
    5. Metrics
    6. Testing Activities

Deployment

    1. Objective
    2. Platforms Affected
    3. Best Practices
    4. Release Management
    5. Secure delivery of code
    6. Code signing
    7. Permissions are set to least privilege
    8. Automated packaging
    9. Automated deployment
    10. Automated removal
    11. No backup or old files
    12. Unnecessary features are off by default
    13. Setup log files are clean
    14. No default accounts
    15. Easter eggs
    16. Malicious software
    17. Further Reading

Maintenance

    1. Objective
    2. Platforms Affected
    3. Relevant COBIT Topics
    4. Best Practices
    5. Security Incident Response
    6. Fix Security Issues Correctly
    7. Update Notifications
    8. Regularly check permissions
    9. Further Reading
    10. Maintenance

GNU Free Documentation License

    1. PREAMBLE
    2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
    3. VERBATIM COPYING
    4. COPYING IN QUANTITY
    5. MODIFICATIONS
    6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
    7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
    8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
    9. TRANSLATION
    10. TERMINATION
    11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

About The Open Web Application Security Project

##Structure and Licensing
##Participation and Membership
##Projects

Introduction

##Developing Secure Applications
##Improvements in this edition
##How to use this Guide
##Updates and errata
##With thanks
=What are web applications?=
##Technologies
##First generation – CGI
##Filters
##Scripting
##Web application frameworks – J
##Small to medium scale applications
##Large scale applications
##View
##Controller
##Model
##Conclusion
=Policy Frameworks=
##Organizational commitment to security
##OWASP’s Place at the Framework table
##Development Methodology
##Coding Standards
##Source Code Control
##Summary
=Secure Coding Principles=
##Asset Classification
##About attackers
##Core pillars of information security
##Security Architecture
##Security Principles
=Threat Risk Modeling=
##Threat Risk Modeling
##Performing threat risk modeling using the Microsoft Threat Modeling Process
##Alternative Threat Modeling Systems
##Trike
##AS/NZS
##CVSS
##OCTAVE
##Conclusion
##Further Reading
=Handling E-Commerce Payments=
##Objectives
##Compliance and Laws
##PCI Compliance
##Handling Credit Cards
##Further Reading
=Phishing=
##What is phishing?
##User Education
##Make it easy for your users to report scams
##Communicating with customers via e-mail
##Never ask your customers for their secrets
##Fix all your XSS issues
##Do not use pop-ups
##Don’t be framed
##Move your application one link away from your front page
##Enforce local referrers for images and other resources
##Keep the address bar, use SSL, do not use IP addresses
##Don’t be the source of identity theft
##Implement safe-guards within your application
##Monitor unusual account activity
##Get the phishing target servers offline pronto
##Take control of the fraudulent domain name
##Work with law enforcement
##When an attack happens
##Further Reading
=Web Services=
##Securing Web Services
##Communication security
##Passing credentials
##Ensuring message freshness
##Protecting message integrity
##Protecting message confidentiality
##Access control
##Audit
##Web Services Security Hierarchy
##SOAP
##WS-Security Standard
##WS-Security Building Blocks
##Communication Protection Mechanisms
##Access Control Mechanisms
##Forming Web Service Chains
##Available Implementations
##Problems
##Further Reading
=Ajax and Other "Rich" Interface Technologies=
##Objective
##Platforms Affected
##Architecture
##Access control: Authentication and Authorization
##Silent transactional authorization
##Untrusted or absent session data
##State management
##Tamper resistance
##Privacy
##Proxy Façade
##SOAP Injection Attacks
##XMLRPC Injection Attacks
##DOM Injection Attacks
##XML Injection Attacks
##JSON (Javascript Object Notation) Injection Attacks
##Encoding safety
##Auditing
##Error Handling
##Accessibility
##Further Reading
=Authentication=
##Objective
##Environments Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Best Practices
##Common web authentication techniques
##Strong Authentication
##Federated Authentication
##Client side authentication controls
##Positive Authentication
##Multiple Key Lookups
##Referer Checks
##Browser remembers passwords
##Default accounts
##Choice of usernames
##Change passwords
##Short passwords
##Weak password controls
##Reversible password encryption
##Automated password resets
##Brute Force
##Remember Me
##Idle Timeouts
##Logout
##Account Expiry
##Self registration
##CAPTCHA
##Further Reading
##Authentication
=Authorization=
##Objectives
##Environments Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Best Practices
##Best Practices in Action
##Principle of least privilege
##Centralized authorization routines
##Authorization matrix
##Controlling access to protected resources
##Protecting access to static resources
##Reauthorization for high value activities or after idle out
##Time based authorization
##Be cautious of custom authorization controls
##Never implement client-side authorization tokens
##Further Reading
=Session Management=
##Objective
##Environments Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Description
##Best practices
##Exposed Session Variables
##Page and Form Tokens
##Weak Session Cryptographic Algorithms
##Session Token Entropy
##Session Time-out
##Regeneration of Session Tokens
##Session Forging/Brute-Forcing Detection and/or Lockout
##Session Token Capture and Session Hijacking
##Session Tokens on Logout
##Session Validation Attacks
##PHP
##Sessions
##Further Reading
##Session Management
=Data Validation=
##Objective
##Platforms Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Description
##Definitions
##Where to include integrity checks
##Where to include validation
##Where to include business rule validation
##Data Validation Strategies
##Prevent parameter tampering
##Hidden fields
##ASP.NET Viewstate
##URL encoding
##HTML encoding
##Encoded strings
##Data Validation and Interpreter Injection
##Delimiter and special characters
##Further Reading
=Interpreter Injection=
##Objective
##Platforms Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##User Agent Injection
##HTTP Response Splitting
##SQL Injection
##ORM Injection
##LDAP Injection
##XML Injection
##Code Injection
##Further Reading
##SQL-injection
##Code Injection
##Command injection
=Canoncalization, locale and Unicode=
##Objective
##Platforms Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Description
##Unicode
##http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc##
##Input Formats
##Locale assertion
##Double (or n-) encoding
##	HTTP Request Smuggling
##	Further Reading
=Error Handling, Auditing and Logging=
##Objective
##Environments Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Description
##Best practices
##Error Handling
##Detailed error messages
##Logging
##Noise
##Cover Tracks
##False Alarms
##Destruction
##Audit Trails
##Further Reading
##Error Handling and Logging
=File System=
##Objective
##Environments Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Description
##Best Practices
##Defacement
##Path traversal
##Insecure permissions
##Insecure Indexing
##Unmapped files
##Temporary files
##PHP
##Includes and Remote files
##File upload
##Old, unreferenced files
##Second Order Injection
##Further Reading
##File System
=Distributed Computing=
##Objective
##Environments Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Best Practices
##Race conditions
##Distributed synchronization
##Further Reading
=Buffer Overflows=
##Objective
##Platforms Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Description
##General Prevention Techniques
##Stack Overflow
##Heap Overflow
##Format String
##Unicode Overflow
##Integer Overflow
##Further reading
=Administrative Interface=
##Objective
##Environments Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Best practices
##Administrators are not users
##Authentication for high value systems
##Further Reading
=Cryptography=
##Objective
##Platforms Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Description
##Cryptographic Functions
##Cryptographic Algorithms
##Algorithm Selection
##Key Storage
##Insecure transmission of secrets
##Reversible Authentication Tokens
##Safe UUID generation
##Summary
##Further Reading
##Cryptography
=Configuration=
##Objective
##Platforms Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Best Practices
##Default passwords
##Secure connection strings
##Secure network transmission
##Encrypted data
##PHP Configuration
##Global variables
##register_globals
##Database security
##Further Reading
##ColdFusion Components (CFCs)
##Configuration
=Software Quality Assurance=
##Objective
##Platforms Affected
##Best practices
##Process
##Metrics
##Testing Activities
=Deployment=
##Objective
##Platforms Affected
##Best Practices
##Release Management
##Secure delivery of code
##Code signing
##Permissions are set to least privilege
##Automated packaging
##Automated deployment
##Automated removal
##No backup or old files
##Unnecessary features are off by default
##Setup log files are clean
##No default accounts
##Easter eggs
##Malicious software
##Further Reading
=Maintenance=
##Objective
##Platforms Affected
##Relevant COBIT Topics
##Best Practices
##Security Incident Response
##Fix Security Issues Correctly
##Update Notifications
##Regularly check permissions
##Further Reading
##Maintenance
=GNU Free Documentation License=
##PREAMBLE
##APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
##VERBATIM COPYING
##COPYING IN QUANTITY
##MODIFICATIONS
##COMBINING DOCUMENTS
##COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
##AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
##TRANSLATION
##TERMINATION
##FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

Category OWASP Guide Project