Difference between revisions of "Forced browsing"

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{{Template:Attack}}
 
{{Template:Attack}}
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Last revision (mm/dd/yy): '''{{REVISIONMONTH}}/{{REVISIONDAY}}/{{REVISIONYEAR}}'''
  
 
==Description==
 
==Description==
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Forced browsing is an attack that’s aim to enumerate and access resources that are not referenced by the application, but still can be accessible.
 
Forced browsing is an attack that’s aim to enumerate and access resources that are not referenced by the application, but still can be accessible.
  
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This attack is also known as Predictable Resource Location, File Enumeration, Directory Enumeration, and Resource Enumeration.
 
This attack is also known as Predictable Resource Location, File Enumeration, Directory Enumeration, and Resource Enumeration.
  
==Severity==
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==Risk Factors==
Medium to High
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==Likelihood of exploitation==
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* Talk about the [[OWASP Risk Rating Methodology|factors]] that make this attack likely or unlikely to actually happen
Very High
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* You can mention the likely technical impact of an attack
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* The [business impact] of an attack is probably conjecture, leave it out unless you're sure
  
==Examples ==
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==Examples==
  
 
===Example 1===
 
===Example 1===
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When the tool receives and “HTTP 200” message it means that such resource was found and should be manually inspected for valuable information.  
 
When the tool receives and “HTTP 200” message it means that such resource was found and should be manually inspected for valuable information.  
  
==External References==
 
*Forceful Browsing – Imperva Application Data Security and Compliance -  http://www.imperva.com/application_defense_center/glossary/forceful_browsing.html
 
*Parameter fuzzing and forced browsing – WebAppSec - http://seclists.org/webappsec/2006/q3/0182.html
 
*http://www.webappsec.org/projects/threat/classes/predictable_resource_location.shtml
 
*http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/425.html
 
  
==Related Threats==
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==Related [[Threat Agents]]==
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[[:Category:Information Disclosure]]
 
[[:Category:Information Disclosure]]
  
==Related Attacks==
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==Related [[Attacks]]==
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*[[Path Traversal]]
 
*[[Path Traversal]]
 
*[[Path Manipulation]]
 
*[[Path Manipulation]]
  
==Related Vulnerabilities==
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==Related [[Vulnerabilities]]==
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[[:Category:Access Control Vulnerability]]
 
[[:Category:Access Control Vulnerability]]
  
==Related Countermeasures==
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==Related [[Controls]]==
  
 
[[:Category: Access Control]]
 
[[:Category: Access Control]]
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==References==
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*Forceful Browsing – Imperva Application Data Security and Compliance -  http://www.imperva.com/application_defense_center/glossary/forceful_browsing.html
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*Parameter fuzzing and forced browsing – WebAppSec - http://seclists.org/webappsec/2006/q3/0182.html
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*http://www.webappsec.org/projects/threat/classes/predictable_resource_location.shtml
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*http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/425.html
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[[category:Resource Manipulation]]
 
[[category:Resource Manipulation]]
 
[[Category:Attack]]
 
[[Category:Attack]]
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__NOTOC__

Revision as of 15:32, 25 May 2008

This is an Attack. To view all attacks, please see the Attack Category page.


Last revision (mm/dd/yy): 05/25/2008

Description

Forced browsing is an attack that’s aim to enumerate and access resources that are not referenced by the application, but still can be accessible.

An attacker can use brute force techniques to search for unlinked contents in domain directory, such as temporary directories and files, old backup and configuration files. These resources may store sensitive information about web applications and operational system, such as source code, credentials, internal network addressing, and so on, thus being considered a valuable resource for intruders.

This attack should be performed manually when the application index directories and pages based on number generation or predictable values, or using automated tools for common files and directories names.

This attack is also known as Predictable Resource Location, File Enumeration, Directory Enumeration, and Resource Enumeration.

Risk Factors

  • Talk about the factors that make this attack likely or unlikely to actually happen
  • You can mention the likely technical impact of an attack
  • The [business impact] of an attack is probably conjecture, leave it out unless you're sure


Examples

Example 1

This example presents a technique of Predictable Resource Location attack, which is based on a manual and oriented identification of resources by modifying URL parameters. The user1 wants to check his on-line agenda that is done thru the following URL:

 www.site-example.com/users/calendar.php/user1/20070715 

In the URL, it is possible to identify the username (“user1”) and the date (mm/dd/yyyy).If the user attempts to make a forced browsing attack, he could guess another user’s agenda by predicting user identification and date, as follow:

 www.site-example.com/users/calendar.php/user6/20070716 

The attack can be considered successful upon accessing other user agenda. A bad implementation of the authorization mechanism also collaborated for this attack success.

Example 2

This example presents how to perform an attack of static directory and file enumeration using an automated tool.

A scanning tool, like | Nikto, has the ability to search for existent files and directories based on a database of well-know resources, such as:

/system/
/password/
/logs/
/admin/
/test/

When the tool receives and “HTTP 200” message it means that such resource was found and should be manually inspected for valuable information.


Related Threat Agents

Category:Information Disclosure


Related Attacks


Related Vulnerabilities

Category:Access Control Vulnerability


Related Controls

Category: Access Control


References