Difference between revisions of "Codereview-Cryptography"

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There are two types of cryptography in this world: cryptography that will stop your kid sister from reading your files, and cryptography that will stop major governments from reading your files [1]. Developers are at the forefront of deciding which category a particular application resides in.  Cryptography provides for security of data at rest (via encryption), enforcement of data integrity (via hashing/digesting), and non-repudiation of data (via signing). As a result, the coding in a secure manner of any of the above cryptographic processes within source code must conform in principle to the use of standard cryptographically secure algorithms with strong key sizes.
 
There are two types of cryptography in this world: cryptography that will stop your kid sister from reading your files, and cryptography that will stop major governments from reading your files [1]. Developers are at the forefront of deciding which category a particular application resides in.  Cryptography provides for security of data at rest (via encryption), enforcement of data integrity (via hashing/digesting), and non-repudiation of data (via signing). As a result, the coding in a secure manner of any of the above cryptographic processes within source code must conform in principle to the use of standard cryptographically secure algorithms with strong key sizes.
  
The use of non-standard cryptographic algorithms, custom implementation of cryptography (standard & non-standard) algorithms, use of standard algorithms which are cryptographically insecure (e.g. DES), and the implementation of insecure keys can weaken the overall security posture of any application.  Implementation of the methods aforementioned enables the use of known cryptanalytic tools & techniques to decrypt sensitive data.  
+
The use of non-standard cryptographic algorithms, custom implementation of cryptography (standard & non-standard) algorithms, use of standard algorithms which are cryptographically insecure (e.g. DES), and the implementation of insecure keys can weaken the overall security posture of any application.  Implementation of the aforementioned methods, enables the use of known cryptanalytic tools & techniques to decrypt sensitive data.  
  
  
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== Use of Standard Cryptographic Libraries ==
 
== Use of Standard Cryptographic Libraries ==
  
As a general recommendation, there is strong reasoning behind not creating custom cryptographic libraries and algorithms. There is a huge distinction between groups organisations and individuals developing cryptographic algorithms and those that implement cryptography either in software or in hardware.
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As a general recommendation, there is strong reasoning behind not creating custom cryptographic libraries and algorithms. There is a huge distinction between groups, organisations and individuals developing cryptographic algorithms and those that implement cryptography either in software or in hardware.
  
  
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</ul>
 
</ul>
 
<br>
 
<br>
Additionally, all sensitive data the application handles should be identified and encryption should be enforced.  This includes user sensitive data, configuration data, etc.  Specifically presence of the following identifies issues with Cryptographic Code:<br>
+
Additionally, all sensitive data that the application handles should be identified and encryption should be enforced.  This includes user sensitive data, configuration data, etc.  Specifically, presence of the following identifies issues with Cryptographic Code:<br>
  
 
'''.NET'''<br>
 
'''.NET'''<br>
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'''Classic ASP'''<br />
 
'''Classic ASP'''<br />
Do all of these checks on the COM wrapper as ASP does not have direct access to cryptographic functions
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Perform all of these checks on the COM wrapper as ASP does not have direct access to cryptographic functions
 
<ol>
 
<ol>
 
<li>Check that the Data Protection API (DPAPI) or CryptoAPI is being used into COM object
 
<li>Check that the Data Protection API (DPAPI) or CryptoAPI is being used into COM object

Revision as of 15:14, 13 October 2008

OWASP Code Review Guide Table of Contents

Contents


Introduction

There are two types of cryptography in this world: cryptography that will stop your kid sister from reading your files, and cryptography that will stop major governments from reading your files [1]. Developers are at the forefront of deciding which category a particular application resides in. Cryptography provides for security of data at rest (via encryption), enforcement of data integrity (via hashing/digesting), and non-repudiation of data (via signing). As a result, the coding in a secure manner of any of the above cryptographic processes within source code must conform in principle to the use of standard cryptographically secure algorithms with strong key sizes.

The use of non-standard cryptographic algorithms, custom implementation of cryptography (standard & non-standard) algorithms, use of standard algorithms which are cryptographically insecure (e.g. DES), and the implementation of insecure keys can weaken the overall security posture of any application. Implementation of the aforementioned methods, enables the use of known cryptanalytic tools & techniques to decrypt sensitive data.


Related Security Activities

Guide to Cryptography
Using the Java Cryptographic Extensions


Use of Standard Cryptographic Libraries

As a general recommendation, there is strong reasoning behind not creating custom cryptographic libraries and algorithms. There is a huge distinction between groups, organisations and individuals developing cryptographic algorithms and those that implement cryptography either in software or in hardware.


.NET and C/C++ (Win32)

For .NET code, class libraries and implementations within System.Security.Cryptography should be used [2]. This namespace within .NET aims to provide a number of wrappers that do not require proficient knowledge of cryptography in order to use it [3].

For C/C++ code running on Win32 platforms, the CryptoAPI is recommended [2]. This has been an integral component for any Visual C++ developer's toolkit prior to the release of the latest replacement with Windows Vista. The CryptoAPI today offers an original benchmark for what will become legacy applications.

Classic ASP

Classic ASP pages do not have direct access to cryptographic functions so the only way is to create COM wrapper in Visual C++ or Visual Basic implementing calls to DPAPI or CryptoAPI, then call it from ASP pages using the Server.CreateObject method.

Java

The Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) [5] was introduced as an optional package in the Java 2 SDK and has since been included with J2SE 1.4 and later versions. When implementing code in this language, the use of a library that is a provider of the JCE is recommended. Sun provides a list of companies that act as Cryptographic Service Providers and/or offer clean room implementations of the Java Cryptography Extension [6].

Vulnerable Patterns Examples for Cryptography

A secure way to implement robust encryption mechanisms within source code is by implementing FIPS[7] compliant algorithms with the use of the Microsoft Data Protection API (DPAPI)[4] or the Java Cryptography Extension (JCE)[5]. The following should be identified when establishing your cryptographic code strategy:

  • Standard Algorithms
  • Strong Algorithms
  • Strong Key Sizes


Additionally, all sensitive data that the application handles should be identified and encryption should be enforced. This includes user sensitive data, configuration data, etc. Specifically, presence of the following identifies issues with Cryptographic Code:

.NET
Check for examples for Cryptography in the MSDN Library Security Practices: .NET Framework 2.0 Security Practices at a Glance

  1. Check that the Data Protection API (DPAPI) is being used
  2. Verify no proprietary algorithms are being used
  3. Check that RNGCryptoServiceProvider is used for PRNG
  4. Verify key length is at least 128 bits

Classic ASP
Perform all of these checks on the COM wrapper as ASP does not have direct access to cryptographic functions

  1. Check that the Data Protection API (DPAPI) or CryptoAPI is being used into COM object
  2. Verify no proprietary algorithms are being used
  3. Check that RNGCryptoServiceProvider is used for PRNG
  4. Verify key length is at least 128 bits

Java

  1. Check that the Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) is being used
  2. Verify no proprietary algorithms are being used
  3. Check that SecureRandom (or similar) is used for PRNG
  4. Verify key length is at least 128 bits


Bad Practice: Use of Insecure Cryptographic Algorithms>>

The following algorithms are cryptographically insecure: DES and SHA-0. Below outlines a cryptographic implementation of DES (available per Using the Java Cryptographic Extensions):

package org.owasp.crypto;

import javax.crypto.KeyGenerator;
import javax.crypto.SecretKey;
import javax.crypto.Cipher;

import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
import java.security.InvalidKeyException;
import java.security.InvalidAlgorithmParameterException;
import javax.crypto.NoSuchPaddingException;
import javax.crypto.BadPaddingException;
import javax.crypto.IllegalBlockSizeException;

import sun.misc.BASE64Encoder;

/**
 * @author Joe Prasanna Kumar
 * This program provides the following cryptographic functionalities
 * 1. Encryption using DES
 * 2. Decryption using DES
 * 
 * The following modes of DES encryption are supported by SUNJce provider 
 * 1. ECB (Electronic code Book) - Every plaintext block is encrypted separately 
 * 2. CBC (Cipher Block Chaining) - Every plaintext block is XORed with the previous ciphertext block
 * 3. PCBC (Propogating Cipher Block Chaining) - 
 * 4. CFB (Cipher Feedback Mode) - The previous ciphertext block is encrypted and this enciphered block is XORed with the plaintext block to produce the corresponding ciphertext block 
 * 5. OFB (Output Feedback Mode) - 
 *
 *	High Level Algorithm :
 * 1. Generate a DES key
 * 2. Create the Cipher (Specify the Mode and Padding)
 * 3. To Encrypt : Initialize the Cipher for Encryption
 * 4. To Decrypt : Initialize the Cipher for Decryption
 * 
 * Need for Padding :
 * Block ciphers operates on data blocks on fixed size n. 
 * Since the data to be encrypted might not always be a multiple of n, the remainder of the bits are padded.
 * PKCS#5 Padding is what will be used in this program 
 * 
 */

public class DES {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		
		String strDataToEncrypt = new String();
		String strCipherText = new String();
		String strDecryptedText = new String();
		
		try{
		/**
		 *  Step 1. Generate a DES key using KeyGenerator 
		 * 
		 */
		KeyGenerator keyGen = KeyGenerator.getInstance("DES");
		SecretKey secretKey = keyGen.generateKey();
		
		/**
		 *  Step2. Create a Cipher by specifying the following parameters
		 * 			a. Algorithm name - here it is DES
		 * 			b. Mode - here it is CBC
		 * 			c. Padding - PKCS5Padding
		 */
		
		Cipher desCipher = Cipher.getInstance("DES/CBC/PKCS5Padding");
		
		/**
		 *  Step 3. Initialize the Cipher for Encryption 
		 */
		
		desCipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE,secretKey);
		
		/**
		 *  Step 4. Encrypt the Data
		 *  		1. Declare / Initialize the Data. Here the data is of type String
		 *  		2. Convert the Input Text to Bytes
		 *  		3. Encrypt the bytes using doFinal method 
		 */
		strDataToEncrypt = "Hello World of Encryption using DES ";
		byte[] byteDataToEncrypt = strDataToEncrypt.getBytes();
		byte[] byteCipherText = desCipher.doFinal(byteDataToEncrypt); 
		strCipherText = new BASE64Encoder().encode(byteCipherText);
		System.out.println("Cipher Text generated using DES with CBC mode and PKCS5 Padding is " +strCipherText);
		
		/**
		 *  Step 5. Decrypt the Data
		 *  		1. Initialize the Cipher for Decryption 
		 *  		2. Decrypt the cipher bytes using doFinal method 
		 */
		desCipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE,secretKey,desCipher.getParameters());
		 //desCipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE,secretKey);
		byte[] byteDecryptedText = desCipher.doFinal(byteCipherText);
		strDecryptedText = new String(byteDecryptedText);
		System.out.println(" Decrypted Text message is " +strDecryptedText);
		}
		
		catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException noSuchAlgo)
		{
			System.out.println(" No Such Algorithm exists " + noSuchAlgo);
		}
		
			catch (NoSuchPaddingException noSuchPad)
			{
				System.out.println(" No Such Padding exists " + noSuchPad);
			}
		
				catch (InvalidKeyException invalidKey)
				{
					System.out.println(" Invalid Key " + invalidKey);
				}
				
				catch (BadPaddingException badPadding)
				{
					System.out.println(" Bad Padding " + badPadding);
				}
				
				catch (IllegalBlockSizeException illegalBlockSize)
				{
					System.out.println(" Illegal Block Size " + illegalBlockSize);
				}
				
				catch (InvalidAlgorithmParameterException invalidParam)
				{
					System.out.println(" Invalid Parameter " + invalidParam);
				}
	}

}

Additionally, SHA-1 and MD5 should be avoided in new applications moving forward.


Good Patterns Examples for Cryptography

Good Practice: Use Strong Entropy>>
The following source code outlines secure key generation per use of strong entropy
(available per Using the Java Cryptographic Extensions):

package org.owasp.java.crypto;

import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;

import sun.misc.BASE64Encoder;

/**
 * @author Joe Prasanna Kumar
 * This program provides the functionality for Generating a Secure Random Number.
 *  
 * There are 2 ways to generate a  Random number through SecureRandom.
 * 1. By calling nextBytes method to generate Random Bytes
 * 2. Using setSeed(byte[]) to reseed a Random object
 * 
 */


public class SecureRandomGen {

	/**
	 * @param args
	 */
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		try {
	        // Initialize a secure random number generator
	        SecureRandom secureRandom = SecureRandom.getInstance("SHA1PRNG");
	    
	        // Method 1 - Calling nextBytes method to generate Random Bytes
	        byte[] bytes = new byte[512];
	        secureRandom.nextBytes(bytes); 
	        
	        // Printing the SecureRandom number by calling secureRandom.nextDouble()
	        System.out.println(" Secure Random # generated by calling nextBytes() is " + secureRandom.nextDouble());
	    
	        // Method 2 - Using setSeed(byte[]) to reseed a Random object
	        int seedByteCount = 10;
	        byte[] seed = secureRandom.generateSeed(seedByteCount);   
	        
	        // TBR System.out.println(" Seed value is " + new BASE64Encoder().encode(seed));
	    
	        secureRandom.setSeed(seed);
	        
	        System.out.println(" Secure Random # generated using setSeed(byte[]) is  " + secureRandom.nextDouble());
	        
	    } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException noSuchAlgo)
		{
			System.out.println(" No Such Algorithm exists " + noSuchAlgo);
		}
	}

}



Good Practice: Use Strong Algorithms>>

Below illustrates the implementation of AES (available per Using the Java Cryptographic Extensions):

package org.owasp.java.crypto;

import javax.crypto.KeyGenerator;
import javax.crypto.SecretKey;
import javax.crypto.Cipher;

import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
import java.security.InvalidKeyException;
import java.security.InvalidAlgorithmParameterException;
import javax.crypto.NoSuchPaddingException;
import javax.crypto.BadPaddingException;
import javax.crypto.IllegalBlockSizeException;

import sun.misc.BASE64Encoder;

/**
 * @author Joe Prasanna Kumar
 * This program provides the following cryptographic functionalities
 * 1. Encryption using AES
 * 2. Decryption using AES
 * 
 * High Level Algorithm :
 * 1. Generate a DES key (specify the Key size during this phase) 
 * 2. Create the Cipher 
 * 3. To Encrypt : Initialize the Cipher for Encryption
 * 4. To Decrypt : Initialize the Cipher for Decryption
 * 
 * 
 */

public class AES {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		
		String strDataToEncrypt = new String();
		String strCipherText = new String();
		String strDecryptedText = new String();
		
		try{
		/**
		 *  Step 1. Generate an AES key using KeyGenerator
		 *  		Initialize the keysize to 128 
		 * 
		 */
		KeyGenerator keyGen = KeyGenerator.getInstance("AES");
		keyGen.init(128);
		SecretKey secretKey = keyGen.generateKey();
		
		/**
		 *  Step2. Create a Cipher by specifying the following parameters
		 * 			a. Algorithm name - here it is AES
		 */
		
		Cipher aesCipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES");
		
		/**
		 *  Step 3. Initialize the Cipher for Encryption 
		 */
		
		aesCipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE,secretKey);
		
		/**
		 *  Step 4. Encrypt the Data
		 *  		1. Declare / Initialize the Data. Here the data is of type String
		 *  		2. Convert the Input Text to Bytes
		 *  		3. Encrypt the bytes using doFinal method 
		 */
		strDataToEncrypt = "Hello World of Encryption using AES ";
		byte[] byteDataToEncrypt = strDataToEncrypt.getBytes();
		byte[] byteCipherText = aesCipher.doFinal(byteDataToEncrypt); 
		strCipherText = new BASE64Encoder().encode(byteCipherText);
		System.out.println("Cipher Text generated using AES is " +strCipherText);
		
		/**
		 *  Step 5. Decrypt the Data
		 *  		1. Initialize the Cipher for Decryption 
		 *  		2. Decrypt the cipher bytes using doFinal method 
		 */
		aesCipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE,secretKey,aesCipher.getParameters());
		byte[] byteDecryptedText = aesCipher.doFinal(byteCipherText);
		strDecryptedText = new String(byteDecryptedText);
		System.out.println(" Decrypted Text message is " +strDecryptedText);
		}
		
		catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException noSuchAlgo)
		{
			System.out.println(" No Such Algorithm exists " + noSuchAlgo);
		}
		
			catch (NoSuchPaddingException noSuchPad)
			{
				System.out.println(" No Such Padding exists " + noSuchPad);
			}
		
				catch (InvalidKeyException invalidKey)
				{
					System.out.println(" Invalid Key " + invalidKey);
				}
				
				catch (BadPaddingException badPadding)
				{
					System.out.println(" Bad Padding " + badPadding);
				}
				
				catch (IllegalBlockSizeException illegalBlockSize)
				{
					System.out.println(" Illegal Block Size " + illegalBlockSize);
				}
				
				catch (InvalidAlgorithmParameterException invalidParam)
				{
					System.out.println(" Invalid Parameter " + invalidParam);
				}
	}

}

Laws and Regulations on Cryptography

There are a number of countries in which encryption is outlawed. As a result, the development or use of applications that deploy cryptographic processes could have an impact depending on location. The following crypto law survey attempts to give an overview on the current state of affairs regarding cryptography on a per-country basis [8]

Design and Implementation

Specification Definitions

Any code implementing cryptographic processes and algorithms should be audited against a set of specifications. This will have as an objective to capture the level of security the software is attempting to meet and thus offer a measure point with regards to the cryptography used.

Level of Code Quality

Cryptographic code written or used should be of the highest level in terms of implementation. This should include simplicity, assertions, unit testing, as well as modularization.

Side Channel and Protocol attacks

As an algorithm is static in nature, its use over a communication medium constitutes a protocol. Thus issues relating to timeouts, how a message is received and over what channel should be considered.

References

[1] Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd edition, 1996.

[2] Michael Howard, Steve Lipner, The Security Development Lifecycle, 2006, pp. 251 - 258

[3] .NET Framework Developer's Guide, Cryptographic Services, http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/93bskf9z.aspx

[4] Microsoft Developer Network, Windows Data Protection, http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms995355.aspx

[5] Sun Developer Network, Java Cryptography Extension, http://java.sun.com/products/jce/

[6] Sun Developer Network, Cryptographic Service Providers and Clean Room Implementations, http://java.sun.com/products/jce/jce122_providers.html

[7] Federal Information Processing Standards, http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/

[8] Bert-Jaap Koops, Crypto Law Survey, 2007, http://rechten.uvt.nl/koops/cryptolaw/