Difference between revisions of "AppSensor DetectionPoints"

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(RP3: Suspicious Client-Side Behavior: CSP reference changed to W3C, 4th example added regarding honeyclients, and 5th example regarding generated page content)
(45 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
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[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/ApplicationLayerIntrustionDetection Read more] about why application logging is the way to go.
 
[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/ApplicationLayerIntrustionDetection Read more] about why application logging is the way to go.
 +
 +
__TOC__
 +
 +
=Detection Points=
  
 
==RequestException==
 
==RequestException==
  
===RE1: Unexpected HTTP Commands===
+
===RE1: Unexpected HTTP Command===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 15: Line 19:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Unexpected HTTP Commands
+
Unexpected HTTP Command
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
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<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
An HTTP request is received which contains unexpected commands. A list of accepted commands should be generated (i.e. GET and POST) and all other HTTP commands should generate an event.
+
An HTTP request is received which contains unexpected/disallowed commands.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
A list of accepted commands should be generated (i.e. GET and POST) and all other HTTP commands should generate an event.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
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</table>
 
</table>
  
===RE2: Attempts To Invoke Unsupported HTTP Methods===
+
===RE2: Attempt to Invoke Unsupported HTTP Method===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
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<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Attempts To Invoke Unsupported HTTP Methods
+
Attempt to Invoke Unsupported HTTP Method
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
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<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
An http request is received which contains a non-existent HTTP command (does not match anything in this list: HEAD,GET,POST,PUT,DELETE,TRACE,OPTIONS,CONNECT)
+
An HTTP request is received which contains a non-existent HTTP command (does not match anything in this list: HEAD, GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, TRACE, OPTIONS, CONNECT).
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
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<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Instead of a GET or POST request, the user sends a TEST request to the application (TEST is not a valid http request)
+
Instead of a GET or POST request, the user sends a TEST request to the application (TEST is not a valid HTTP request method).
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
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<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
A page which is expecting only POST requests, receives a GET.
+
A page which is expecting only POST requests, is requested by HTTP method GET.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
Some pages may be designed to receive both GET and POST requests.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user sends a GET request to a page which has only been used for POSTs
+
The user sends a GET request to a page which has only been used for POSTs.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
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<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
A page which is expecting only GET requests, receives a POST
+
A page which is expecting only GET requests, receives a POST.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
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<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to build a custom POST request and sends it to a page which has been accessed by GET requests.
+
The user utilizes a proxy tool to build a custom POST request and sends it to a page which has been accessed by GET requests.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
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</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
 +
===RE5: Additional/Duplicated Data in Request===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RE5
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Additional/Duplicated Data in Request
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RequestException
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Additional unexpected parameters or HTTP headers, or duplicates, are received with the request.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Additional parameters may be an attempt to override values or to exploit unexposed functionality.  Duplicated parameters may be an indication of attempted HTTP parameter pollution.
 +
 +
Beware of firing this detector when additional cookies, not used by the application, are found (as opposed to duplicated cookies) since these may relate to third-party code (e.g. advertisements, analytics) or some other application.
 +
 +
Note that extra HTTP headers may be added by intermediate proxies, and unless the network configuration is fixed (an internal network perhaps), additional headers cannot be controlled and thus cannot be used to infer existence of a potential attacker.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: Additional form or URL parameters submitted with request (e.g. debug=1, servervariable=2000).
 +
 +
Example 2: A parameter is defined more than once in the URL Query String.
 +
 +
Example 3: An HTTP header is duplicated.
 +
 +
Example 4: An additional HTTP header is found.
 +
 +
Example 5: A URL path parameter with the same name as a form parameter is sent with the request
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE5#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE5#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE5#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
===RE6: Data Missing from Request===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RE6
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Data Missing from Request
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RequestException
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Expected parameters or HTTP headers are missing from the request.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Bookmarking and use of a browser's "back button" can lead to requests without the expected parameters.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: A page is requested without any of the required form parameters.
 +
 +
Example 2: The HTTP-Accept header is not present in a request.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE6#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE6#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE6#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
===RE7: Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Parameter===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RE7
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Parameter
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RequestException
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
The user provides a parameter value with a large number of characters.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: The user submits a form field with more characters than the form's maxlength attribute and client-side validation would allow
 +
 +
Example 2: The user submits data in a form's hidden field which is longer than expected.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE7#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE7#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE7#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
===RE8: Unexpected Type of Characters in Parameter===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RE8
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Unexpected Type of Characters in Parameter
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RequestException
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
The user provides a parameter value containing characters outwith the expected range.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: The user sends an HTTP header containing a line break character.
 +
 +
Example 2: The user sends a URL parameter value that contains ASCII characters below 20 or above 7E.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE8#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE8#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RE8#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
  
 
==AuthenticationException==
 
==AuthenticationException==
  
===AE1: Use Of Multiple Usernames===
+
===AE1: Use of Multiple Usernames===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 161: Line 324:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Use Of Multiple Usernames
+
Use of Multiple Usernames
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 169: Line 332:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Multiple usernames are attempted when logging into the application. The assignment of login attempts to a user can be based off of a sessionID given to the user when they visit the website. Correlating based on IP address is difficult since multiple users could be using the site from the same IP address (e.g. corporate NAT)
+
Multiple usernames are attempted when logging into the application.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
The assignment of login attempts to a user can be based on a sessionID given to the user when they first visit the website. Correlating based on IP address is difficult since multiple users could be using the site from the same IP address (e.g. corporate NAT).
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
User first tries username bob, then username sue, then steve etc
+
User first tries username 'bob', then username 'sue', then 'steve', etc.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 204: Line 367:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
For a single username, multiple bad passwords are entered
+
For a single username, multiple bad passwords, or other authentication credentials, are entered.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
See [http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/~michaelm/postscripts/hotsec2010.pdf Popularity is Everything] section 4 - Attack-Detection Scenarios for ideas about tracking use of unsuccessful passwords and looking whether these are used against multiple accounts.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
User tries username:password combination of user:pass1, user:pass2, user:pass3, etc
+
Example 1: User tries username:password combination of 'user:pass1', 'user:pass2', 'user:pass3', etc.
 +
 
 +
Example 2: Multiple failed PINs are attempted for the same customer account.
 +
 
 +
Example 3: In an online banking application, several invalid mobile authentication codes, transaction verification codes or transaction authentication numbers are submitted.
 +
 
 +
Example 4: A user provides the correct password, but repeatedly fails to provide the required second password correctly.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 222: Line 391:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===AE3: High Rate Of Login Attempts===
+
===AE3: High Rate of Login Attempts===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 231: Line 400:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
High Rate Of Login Attempts
+
High Rate of Login Attempts
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 239: Line 408:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The number of logins sent per minute becomes too high indicating an automated login attack
+
The rate of login attempts becomes too high (possibly indicating an automated login attack).
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
The threshold should relate to a limit and period appropriate to the application (e.g. total number in a second or minute or hour).
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
User sends the following login attempts within 1 second. user1:pass1, user1:pass2, user2:pass3, user2:pass4
+
User sends the following login attempts within 1 second - 'user1:pass1', 'user1:pass2', 'user2:pass3', 'user2:pass4'.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 257: Line 426:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===AE4: Unexpected Quantity Of Characters In Username===
+
===AE4: Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Username===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 266: Line 435:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Unexpected Quantity Of Characters In Username
+
Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Username
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 274: Line 443:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user provides a username with a large number of characters
+
The user provides a username with a large number of characters.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
Line 282: Line 451:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user sends a username that is 200 characters long
+
The user sends a username that is 200 characters long when 6-8 are expected.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 292: Line 461:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===AE5: Unexpected Quantity Of Characters In Password===
+
===AE5: Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Password===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 301: Line 470:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Unexpected Quantity Of Characters In Password
+
Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Password
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 309: Line 478:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user provides a password with a large number of characters
+
The user provides a password with a large number of characters.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
Higher limits may be required for sites which allow users to have pass phrases.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user sends a password that is 200 characters long
+
Example 1: The user sends a password that is 200 characters long, when 5-20 are expected.
 +
 
 +
Example 2: The user sends a PIN of 30 characters.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 327: Line 498:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===AE6: Unexpected Types Of Characters In Username===
+
===AE6: Unexpected Type of Character in Username===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 336: Line 507:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Unexpected Types Of Characters In Username
+
Unexpected Type of Character in Username
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 344: Line 515:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user provides non-printable characters such as the null byte. Any characters below hex value 20 or above 7E are considered illegal (decimal values of below 32 or above 126)
+
The user provides a username which contains characters outwith the expected range.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
Any characters below hex value 20 or above 7E are often considered illegal (decimal values of below 32 or above 126).
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user sends a username that contains ascii characters below 20 or above 7E
+
The user sends a username that contains ASCII non-printable characters such as the NULL byte.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 362: Line 533:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===AE7: Unexpected Types Of Characters In Password===
+
===AE7: Unexpected Type of Character in Password===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 371: Line 542:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Unexpected Types Of Characters In Password
+
Unexpected Type of Character in Password
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 379: Line 550:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user provides characters such as the null byte, alt-characters, (WHAT IS THE NAME FOR THOSE)
+
The user provides a password containing characters outwith the expected range.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
Examples include null byte, and characters which need the ALT key to be used.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user sends a password that contains ascii characters below 20 or above 7E
+
The user sends a password that contains ASCII characters below 20 or above 7E.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 397: Line 568:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===AE8: Providing Only The Username===
+
===AE8: Providing Only the Username===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 406: Line 577:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Providing Only The Username
+
Providing Only the Username
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 414: Line 585:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user submits a post request which only contains the username variable. The password variable has been removed. This is different from only providing the username in the login form since in that case the password variable would be present and empty.
+
The user submits a POST request which only contains the username variable. The password variable has been removed.  
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
This is different from only providing the username in the login form since in that case the password variable would be present and empty.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to remove the password variable from the submitted post request.
+
The user utilizes a proxy tool to remove the password variable from the submitted POST request.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 432: Line 603:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===AE9: Providing Only The Password===
+
===AE9: Providing Only the Password===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 441: Line 612:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Providing Only The Password
+
Providing Only the Password
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 449: Line 620:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user submits a post request which only contains the password variable. The username variable has been removed. This is different from only providing the password in the login form since in that case the username variable would be present and empty.
+
The user submits a POST request which only contains the password variable. The username variable has been removed.  
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
This is different from only providing the password in the login form since in that case the username variable would be present and empty.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to remove the username variable from the submitted post request.
+
The user utilizes a proxy tool to remove the username variable from the submitted POST request.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 467: Line 638:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===AE10: Adding Additional POST Variables===
+
===AE10: Additional POST Variable===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 476: Line 647:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Adding Additional POST Variables
+
Additional POST Variable
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 484: Line 655:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Additional, unexpected post variables are received during an authentication request.
+
Additional, unexpected POST variables are received during an authentication request.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
Line 492: Line 663:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to add the additional post variable of admin=true to the post request
+
The user utilizes a proxy tool to add the POST variable of 'admin=true' to the request.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 502: Line 673:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===AE11: Removing POST Variables===
+
===AE11: Missing POST Variable===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 519: Line 690:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Expected post variables are not present within the submitted authentication requests
+
Expected POST variables are not present within the submitted authentication request.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
Line 527: Line 698:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to remove an additional post variable, such as guest=true, from the post request
+
The user utilizes a proxy tool to remove an additional POST variable, such as 'guest=true', from the POST request.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 536: Line 707:
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
 +
===AE12: Utilization of Common Usernames===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
AE12
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Utilization of Common Usernames
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
AuthenticationException
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Common dictionary usernames are used to attempt to log into the application.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Log in attempted with usernames "administrator", then "admin", then "test"
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_AE12#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_AE12#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_AE12#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
  
 
==SessionException==
 
==SessionException==
  
===SE1: Modifying Existing Cookies===
+
===SE1: Modifying Existing Cookie===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 548: Line 755:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Modifying Existing Cookies
+
Modifying Existing Cookie
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 556: Line 763:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
A request is received containing a cookie with a modified value. This could be determined if the cookie is modified to an illegal value.
+
A request is received containing a cookie with a modified value.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
This could be determined if the cookie is modified to an illegal value.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to change the encrypted cookie to an alternative value which does not properly decode within the application. Or, the user modifies an unencrypted cookie and sets an illegal value for a particular variable.
+
Example 1: The user utilizes a proxy tool to change the encrypted cookie to an alternative value which does not properly decode within the application.  
 +
 
 +
Example 2: The user modifies an unencrypted cookie and sets an illegal value for a particular variable.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 574: Line 783:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===SE2: Adding New Cookies===
+
===SE2: Adding New Cookie===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 583: Line 792:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Adding New Cookies
+
Adding New Cookie
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 595: Line 804:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
A session cookie existing when it should not (e.g. prior to authentication) is probably indicative of an attack.  But cookies may also be set by third party sites which get send with the request - these may be harmless.  Also consider what other applications exist on sub-domains (e.g. www.example.com, extranet.example.com and sales.example.com) which may also be setting cookies.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to add additional cookies to the request.
+
The user utilizes a proxy tool to add cookies to the request.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 609: Line 818:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===SE3: Deleting Existing Cookies===
+
===SE3: Deleting Existing Cookie===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 618: Line 827:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Deleting Existing Cookies
+
Deleting Existing Cookie
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 630: Line 839:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
The user may have bookmarked a page they had visited during a previous authenticated session.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to remove cookies or portions of cookies from a request.
+
The user utilizes a proxy tool to remove cookies or portions of cookies from a request.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 644: Line 853:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===SE4: Substituting Another User's Valid Session ID Or Cookie===
+
===SE4: Substituting Another User's Valid Session ID or Cookie===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 653: Line 862:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Substituting Another User's Valid Session ID Or Cookie
+
Substituting Another User's Valid Session ID or Cookie
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 669: Line 878:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to substitute valid data from another user or session into the cookie. An example would be changing some sort of identification number within the cookie.
+
The user utilizes a proxy tool to substitute valid data from another user or session into the cookie. An example would be changing some sort of identification number within the cookie.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 679: Line 888:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===SE5: Source IP Address Changes During Session===
+
===SE5: Source Location Changes During Session===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 688: Line 897:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Source IP Address Changes During Session
+
Source Location Changes During Session
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 696: Line 905:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Valid requests, containing valid session credentials, are received from multiple source IP addresses.
+
Valid requests, containing valid session credentials, are received from multiple source locations indicating a possible session hijacking attack.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
A full IP address may not be constant for some users during normal use.  Enforcing single fixed IP addresses for each session in an intranet application may be valid.  However, if the application is accessible over public networks, changing IP address cannot be excluded and it may be more useful to consider fixing just part of the IP address, or looking for more significant changes such as when the user's IP address geo-location region or country changes (see [http://www.apnic.net/services/services-apnic-provides/helpdesk/faqs/asn-faqs Autonomous System Number] (ASN) and [http://blog.modsecurity.org/2010/10/detecting-malice-with-modsecurity-geolocation-data.html Detecting Malice with ModSecurity: GeoLocation Data]).  Note: source port number should not be used in checks since this usually changes very frequently.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
Line 714: Line 923:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===SE6: Change Of User Agent Mid Session===
+
===SE6: Change of User Agent Mid Session===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 723: Line 932:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Change Of User Agent Mid Session
+
Change of User Agent Mid Session
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 731: Line 940:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The User-Agent value of the header changes during an authenticated session. This indicates a different browser is now being used. Although this value is under the control of the sender, a change in this may indicates that the session has been compromised and is being used another individual. This will likely not be the case that the user has simply copied and pasted the URL from one browser to another on the same system because this action would not copy over the appropriate session identifiers.
+
The User-Agent value of the header changes during a session. This indicates a different browser is now being used. Although this value is under the control of the sender, a change in this may indicates that the session has been compromised and is being used another individual. This will likely not be the case that the user has simply copied and pasted the URL from one browser to another on the same system because this action would not copy over the appropriate session identifiers.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Optionally also include other HTTP headers in this check.  For example, the Accept-Encoding and Accept-Language headers do not normally change and could be concatenated with the User-Agent and hashed to created an identifier.
  
 +
The [http://panopticlick.eff.org/about.php ideas] described in [http://panopticlick.eff.org/ Panopticlick] and [http://www.businessinfo.co.uk/labs/probe/probe.php Javascript Browser Fingerprinting] can also be used to fingerprint a particular client system but require the use of client-side code.  Application owners should check the legality of collecting data, and whether it is considered "personal data" which may have additional constraints in some jurisdictions.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Midsession, the UserAgent changes from Firefox to Internet Explorer
+
Midsession, the UserAgent changes from Firefox to Internet Explorer.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 748: Line 959:
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
  
 
==AccessControlException==
 
==AccessControlException==
  
===ACE1: Modifying URL Arguments Within a GET For Direct Object Access Attempts===
+
===ACE1: Modifying URL Argument Within a GET for Direct Object Access Attempt===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 760: Line 972:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Modifying URL Arguments Within a GET For Direct Object Access Attempts
+
Modifying URL Argument Within a GET for Direct Object Access Attempt
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 776: Line 988:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user modifies the following URL from FIX THIS
+
The user modifies the following URL from  
 +
 
 +
example.com/viewpage?page=1&user=guest
 +
 
 +
to
 +
 
 +
example.com/viewpage?page=22&user=admin
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 786: Line 1,004:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===ACE2: Modifying Parameters Within A POST For Direct Object Access Attempts===
+
===ACE2: Modifying Parameter Within A POST for Direct Object Access Attempt===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 795: Line 1,013:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Modifying Parameters Within A POST For Direct Object Access Attempts
+
Modifying Parameter Within A POST for Direct Object Access Attempt
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 811: Line 1,029:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to intercept a post request and changes the posted value to a value that was not available through the normal display. For example, the user encounters a dropdown box containing the numbers 1 through 10. The user selects 5 and then intercepts the post to change the submitted value to 100.
+
The user utilizes a proxy tool to intercept a POST request and changes the submitted value to a value that was not available through the normal display. For example, the user encounters a dropdown box containing the numbers 1 through 10. The user selects 5 and then intercepts the request to change the submitted value to 100.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 821: Line 1,039:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===ACE3: Force Browsing Attempts===
+
===ACE3: Force Browsing Attempt===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 830: Line 1,048:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Force Browsing Attempts
+
Force Browsing Attempt
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 838: Line 1,056:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
An authenticated user sends a request for a non-existent page or a page that is not authorized for the user.
+
An authenticated or unauthenticated user sends a request for a non-existent resource (e.g. page, directory listing, image, file, etc), or a resource that is not authorized for that user.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
Line 846: Line 1,064:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user is authenticated and requests site.com/PageThatDoesNotExist
+
Example 1: The user is authenticated and requests site.com/PageThatDoesNotExist
 +
 
 +
Example 2: The user is authenticated and requests a video they are not authorized to download/view
 +
 
 +
Example 3: An unauthenticated user (perhaps with a session ID) requests a listing of a directory detailed in the site's robots.txt file
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 856: Line 1,078:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===ACE4: Evading Presentation Access Control Through Custom Posts===
+
===ACE4: Evading Presentation Access Control Through Custom POST===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 865: Line 1,087:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Evading Presentation Access Control Through Custom Posts
+
Evading Presentation Access Control Through Custom POST
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 873: Line 1,095:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
A post request is received which is not authorized for the current user and the user could not have performed this action without crafting a custom POST request. This situation is most likely to occur when presentation layer access controls are in place and have removed the user's ability to initiate the action through the presentation of the application. An attacker may be aware of the functionality and attempt to bypass this presentation layer access control by crafting their own custom message and sending this in an attempt to execute the functionality.
+
A POST request is received which is not authorized for the current user and the user could not have performed this action without crafting a custom POST request.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
This situation is most likely to occur when presentation layer access controls are in place and have removed the user's ability to initiate the action through the presentation of the application. An attacker may be aware of the functionality and attempt to bypass this presentation layer access control by crafting their own custom message and sending this in an attempt to execute the functionality.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The application contains the ability for an administrator to delete a user. This method is normally invoked by entering the username and posting to https://oursite/deleteuser
+
The application contains the ability for an administrator to delete a user. This method is normally invoked by entering the username and submitting to https://oursite/deleteuser
Presentation layer access controls ensure the delete user form is not displayed to non-administrator users. A malicious user has access to a non-administrator account and is aware of the delete user functionality. The malicious user sends a custom crafted post message to https://oursite/deleteuser in an attempt to execute the delete user method.
+
Presentation layer access controls ensure the delete user form is not displayed to non-administrator users. A malicious user has access to a non-administrator account and is aware of the delete user functionality. The malicious user sends a custom crafted POST message to https://oursite/deleteuser in an attempt to execute the delete user method.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 911: Line 1,133:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The HTTP request contains common XSS attacks which are often used by attackers probing for XSS vulnerabilities. Detection should be configured to test all GET and POST values as well as all header names and values for the following values.
+
The HTTP request contains common XSS attacks which are often used by attackers probing for XSS vulnerabilities.  
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
Detection should be configured to test all GET and POST values as well as all header names and values for the following values.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user uses a proxy tool to add an XSS attack to the header value and the """"displayname"""" post variable. The header value could be displayed to an admin viewing log files and the """"displayname"""" post variable may be stored in the application and displayed to other users. Note, the following xss attacks would be used by an attacker to probe for vulnerability. An actual XSS attack would be customized by the attacker.
+
The user utilizes a proxy tool to add an XSS attack to the header value and the 'displayname' POST variable. The header value could be displayed to an admin viewing log files and the 'displayname' POST variable may be stored in the application and displayed to other users. Note, the following XSS attacks would only be used by an attacker to probe for vulnerability. An actual XSS attack would be customized by the attacker.
  
 
&#60;script>alert(document.cookie);&#60;/script>
 
&#60;script>alert(document.cookie);&#60;/script>
Line 942: Line 1,164:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===IE2: Violations Of Implemented White Lists===
+
===IE2: Violation Of Implemented White Lists===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 951: Line 1,173:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Violations Of Implemented White Lists
+
Violation Of Implemented White Lists
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 963: Line 1,185:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
See AC3 (Force Browsing Attempts) about requests for non-existent/unauthorised (i.e. not white listed) URLs.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
Line 976: Line 1,198:
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
 +
===IE3: Violation Of Implemented Black Lists===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
IE3
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Violation Of Implemented Black Lists
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
InputException
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
The application receives user-supplied data that violates an established black list validation.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
The application receives user-supplied data that violates an established black list validation.  This may not be attack data necessarily, but repeated violations could be an attempt by the attacker to determine how an application works or to discover a flaw or to exploit a flaw.  This black list approach suffers from the potential for greater false positives than IE2 above, and cannot be used to identify all potential malicious data.
 +
 +
Example 1: URL in comment field identified as suspected phishing and malware pages using [http://code.google.com/apis/safebrowsing/ Google Safe Browsing API])
 +
 +
Example 2: Parameter value matches a known SQL injection pattern.
 +
 +
Example 3: Parameter value matches a known XSS pattern.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE3#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE3#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE3#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
===IE4: Violation of Input Data Integrity===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
IE4
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Violation of Input Data Integrity
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
InputException
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
The application receives HTTP header or body parameter values which have been tampered with when no change should have occurred.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: Hidden form field modified by client.
 +
 +
Example 2: Select list value submitted in response, not sent by server as an available option value.
 +
 +
Example 3: Cookie set by server has been manipulated by the client.
 +
 +
Example 4: Cookie created by client instead of by the server.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE4#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE4#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE4#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
===IE5: Violation of Stored Business Data Integrity===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
IE5
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Violation of Stored Business Data Integrity
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
InputException
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
User's input leads to violation of data integrity.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: A user's action leads to a system integrity error when writing to, or updating, a database.
 +
 +
Example 2: Business rule checks detect that a user's action is not compatible.
 +
 +
Example 3: Data accuracy checking detects duplicate records for a user.
 +
 +
Example 4: User input leads to an unexpected file change (e.g. .htaccess file overwritten, page template changed).
 +
 +
Example 5: User's request leads to a new, unexpected, outbound network connection being made (e.g. mail sent to an SMTP server, files downloaded from a FTP server).
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE5#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE5#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE5#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
===IE6: Violation of Security Log Integrity===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
IE6
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Violation of Security Log Integrity
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
InputException
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Security or audit log tampering detected.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
AppSensor may rely on the accuracy of "log" data to make decisions when thresholds are reached.  This detector aims to detect the insertion of forged entries, corruption of logs, unauthorised deletion of and changes to records.
 +
 +
See also:
 +
* [http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-92/SP800-92.pdf NIST SP 800-92 Guide to Security Log Management]
 +
* [http://www.cs.toronto.edu/vldb04/protected/eProceedings/contents/pdf/RS13P1.PDF Tamper Detection in Audit Logs]
 +
* [http://www.sqlsecurity.com/images/tamper/tamperdetection.htm Forensic Tamper Detection in SQL Server]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: Special characters embedded in logged data about a user's activity cause the data to overwrite a previous log entry.
 +
 +
Example 2: Log file integrity is broken by modification to an existing log entry.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE6#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE6#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_IE6#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
  
 
==EncodingException==
 
==EncodingException==
  
===EE1: Double Encoded Characters===
+
===EE1: Double Encoded Character===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 996: Line 1,386:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
An HTTP request is received which contains values that have been double encoded.
+
An HTTP request is received which contains one or more double encoded values.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
Line 1,053: Line 1,443:
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
  
 
==CommandInjectionException==
 
==CommandInjectionException==
  
===CIE1: Blacklist Inspection For Common SQL Injection Values===
+
===CIE1: Blacklist Inspection for Common SQL Injection Values===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,065: Line 1,456:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Blacklist Inspection For Common SQL Injection Values
+
Blacklist Inspection for Common SQL Injection Values
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,073: Line 1,464:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
A request is received which contains common SQL injection attack attempts. The point of this detection is not to detect all variations of a SQL injection attack, but to detect the common probes which an attacker or tool might use to determine if a SQL injection vulnerability is present. Unless the site contains some sort of message board for discussing SQL injection, there is little reason that the SQL injection examples should ever be received from a user request.
+
A request is received which contains common SQL injection attack attempts.  
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
The point of this detection is not to detect all variations of a SQL injection attack, but to detect the common probes which an attacker or tool might use to determine if a SQL injection vulnerability is present. Unless the site contains some sort of message board for discussing SQL injection, there is little reason that the SQL injection examples should ever be received from a user request.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user sends a request and modifies a URL parameter from category = 5 to category = 5' OR '1' = '1 in an attempt to perform an SQL injection attack. The user could perform similar attacks by modifying post variables or even the request headers to contain SQL injection attacks.
+
The user sends a request and modifies a URL parameter from category = 5 to category = 5' OR '1' = '1 in an attempt to perform an SQL injection attack. The user could perform similar attacks by modifying POST variables or even the request headers to contain SQL injection attacks.
 
' OR '1'='1
 
' OR '1'='1
 
' OR 'a'='a
 
' OR 'a'='a
Line 1,102: Line 1,493:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===CIE2: Detect Abnormal Quantity Of Returned Records===
+
===CIE2: Detect Abnormal Quantity of Returned Records===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,111: Line 1,502:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Detect Abnormal Quantity Of Returned Records
+
Detect Abnormal Quantity of Returned Records
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,119: Line 1,510:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
A database query is executed which returns more records than expected. For example, if the query should only return 1 record and 100 records are returned, then something has likely gone wrong.
+
A database query is executed which returns more records than expected.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
Line 1,127: Line 1,518:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The application is designed to allow a user to maintain 5 profiles. A user makes a request to view all of their profiles. The database query, which is expected to always return 5 or less results, returns 10,000 records. Something in the application, or user's actions, has caused unauthorized data to be returned.
+
Example 1: A query of a non-SQL dataset should only return 1 record but 100 records are returned.
 +
 
 +
Example 2: The application is designed to allow a user to maintain 5 profiles. A user makes a request to view all of their profiles. The database SQL query, which is expected to always return 5 or less results, returns 10,000 records. Something in the application, or user's actions, has caused unauthorized data to be returned.
 +
 
 +
Example 3: Extraction of data from an XML file should only return one matching node, but more than one is returned.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 1,137: Line 1,532:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===CIE3: Null Byte Character In File Request===
+
===CIE3: Null Byte Character in File Request===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,146: Line 1,541:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Null Byte Character In File Request
+
Null Byte Character in File Request
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,177: Line 1,572:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===CIE4: Carriage Return Or Line Feed Character In File Request===
+
===CIE4: Carriage Return or Line Feed Character in File Request===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,186: Line 1,581:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Carriage Return Or Line Feed Character In File Request
+
Carriage Return or Line Feed Character in File Request
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,194: Line 1,589:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
A request is received which contains the carriage return or line feed characters within the posted data or the URL parameters. This is an attempted HTTP split response attack.
+
A request is received which contains the carriage return or line feed characters within the POST data or the URL parameters. This is an attempted HTTP split response attack.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
Line 1,202: Line 1,597:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user includes the hex value %0D or %0A in the http request post data or URL parameters.
+
The user includes the hex value %0D or %0A in the HTTP request POST data or URL parameters.
  
 
Cross references:
 
Cross references:
Line 1,215: Line 1,610:
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
  
 
==FileIOException==
 
==FileIOException==
  
===FIO1: Detect Large Individual Files===
+
===FIO1: Detect Large Individual File===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,227: Line 1,623:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Detect Large Individual Files
+
Detect Large Individual File
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,235: Line 1,631:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
A file upload feature detects that a large file has been submitted for upload which exceeds the maximum upload size
+
A file upload feature detects that a large file has been submitted for upload which exceeds the maximum upload size.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
Line 1,243: Line 1,639:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user attempts to upload a large file to occupy resources or fill up disk space
+
The user attempts to upload a large file to occupy resources or fill up disk space.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 1,253: Line 1,649:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===FIO2: Detect Large Number Of File Uploads===
+
===FIO2: Detect Large Number of File Uploads===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,262: Line 1,658:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Detect Large Number Of File Uploads
+
Detect Large Number of File Uploads
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,274: Line 1,670:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
The limit and period used to determine the threshold rate is application dependent, and may also depend on the user's role.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
A single user attempts to upload multiple small files to occupy resources or fill up disk space
+
A single user attempts to upload multiple small files to occupy resources or fill up disk space.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 1,287: Line 1,683:
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
  
 
==Honey Trap==
 
==Honey Trap==
  
TBD
+
===HT1: Alteration to Honey Trap Data===
  
Some ideas: http://blogs.sans.org/appsecstreetfighter/2009/06/04/my-top-6-honeytokens/
+
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
HT1
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Alteration to Honey Trap Data
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
HoneyTrap
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Fake (not otherwise needed by the application) data sent to the user and returned (e.g. as form, URL, cookie values or in the path or HTTP header) is modified.  This is usually combined with making the name or value a tempting item for an attacker to try modifying.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Similar techniques can also be used for the creation of accessible CAPTCHA.
 +
 
 +
See also ideas at http://blogs.sans.org/appsecstreetfighter/2009/06/04/my-top-6-honeytokens/  
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: Otherwise useless hidden fields, which look like potential vulnerabilities, added to some forms are sent back to the server modified (e.g. &lt;input type="hidden" name="admin" value="false" /&gt;).
 +
 
 +
Example 2: An additional URL parameter, which is not used by the application, is modified by the user (e.g. www.example.com/account.jsp?debug=0).
 +
 
 +
Example 3: An additional fake cookie is added and is modified by the user.
 +
 
 +
Example 4: URL rewriting is used and a fake directory name is added; this is modified by the user (e.g. www.example.com/orders/normaluser/display.php).
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_HT1#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_HT1#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_HT1#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 
 +
===HT2: Honey Trap Resource Requested===
 +
 
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
HT2
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Honey Trap Resource Requested
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
HoneyTrap
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
A purposely leaked resource that has no use in normal application use is requested by a user.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Ensure the resource is not linked from normal application content such that a spider or robot might find the resource in any case.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: Page, directory or other resource listed in the application's robots.txt robots exclusion file is requested by the user.
 +
 
 +
Example 2: URL identified only in HTML comments is requested by the user.
 +
 
 +
Example 3: Unexposed server function call included in Flash file source code is requested by the user.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_HT2#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_HT2#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_HT2#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 
 +
===HT3: Honey Trap Data Used===
 +
 
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
HT3
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Honey Trap Data Used
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
HoneyTrap
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Special data sent or accessed by a user.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
For honey trap data that is detected on egress only, use of outbound content monitoring (e.g. a web application firewall or similar technique) may be helpful.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: Fake user name and password only visible in source HTML code used to attempt to log in to the application (e.g. in HTML comments, in server-side code 'accidentally' delivered to the user).
 +
 
 +
Example 2: A special code number or account name is left in a discussion forum site; this is then used in the application.
 +
 
 +
Example 3: An attempt is made to authenticate with the user name listed in the first row (e.g. ID=1) of the application's database table of Users.
 +
 
 +
Example 4: Data from a fake account record is sent by the server and detected; this record should not normally be accessible by anyone using the application.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_HT3#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_HT3#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_HT3#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
  
 
==UserTrendException==
 
==UserTrendException==
  
===UT1: Irregular Use Of Application===
+
===UT1: Irregular Use of Application===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,305: Line 1,821:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Irregular Use Of Application
+
Irregular Use of Application
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,313: Line 1,829:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The application receives numerous requests for the same page or feature from a user. The user may be sending different data combinations or trying to detect errors in the page.
+
The application receives an unusual pattern of requests for the same page or feature from a user. The user may be sending different data combinations or trying to detect errors in the page.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
Line 1,321: Line 1,837:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user requests a particular page, such as the address update page, numerous times.
+
Example 1: The user requests a particular page, such as the address update page, numerous times.
 +
 
 +
Example 2: The user requests a page out-of-sequence, such as an intermediate step in a multi-stage form.
 +
 
 +
Example 3: The user only requests dynamic content, and not the associated static files (e.g. images, stylesheets).
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 1,331: Line 1,851:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===UT2: Speed Of Application Use===
+
===UT2: Speed of Application Use===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,340: Line 1,860:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Speed Of Application Use
+
Speed of Application Use
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,348: Line 1,868:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The speed of requests from a user indicates that an automated tool is being used to access the site. The use of a tool may indicate reconnaissance for an attack or attempts to identify vulnerabilities in the site.
+
The speed of requests from a user indicates that an automated tool is being used to access the site. The use of a tool undertaking a high number of requests quickly may indicate reconnaissance for an attack or attempts to identify vulnerabilities in the site.  Slow usage (e.g. between account creation and use) might indicate automated account creation that are then used subsequently for attacks.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
If enforced inappropriately or too rigorously, this detection point could lead to false positives.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The user utilizes an automated tool to request hundreds of pages per minute.
+
Example 1: The user utilizes an automated tool to request hundreds of pages per minute.
 +
 
 +
Example 2: The user does not log in to the site until a long time after their account is created.
 +
 
 +
Example 3: New (uncached) static content such as images and style sheets associated with each page are not requested in a similar time period as the page.
 +
 
 +
Example 4: A CAPTCHA challenge is responded to more quickly than a human could possibly do.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 1,366: Line 1,892:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===UT3: Frequency Of Site Use===
+
===UT3: Frequency of Site Use===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,375: Line 1,901:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Frequency Of Site Use
+
Frequency of Site Use
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,383: Line 1,909:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Does the user normally access the site 1 per week, and this is now many times per day
+
Change in how often the site is used by a user
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
Line 1,391: Line 1,917:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
The user normally accesses the site 1 per week, but this changes to many times per day.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 1,401: Line 1,927:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===UT4: Frequency Of Feature Use===
+
===UT4: Frequency of Feature Use===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,410: Line 1,936:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
Frequency Of Feature Use
+
Frequency of Feature Use
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,426: Line 1,952:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: The user submits many forum messages in a short period of time.
  
 +
Example 2: The user adds many new friends rapidly.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 1,435: Line 1,963:
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
  
 
==SystemTrendException==
 
==SystemTrendException==
  
===STE1: High Number Of Logouts Across The Site===
+
===STE1: High Number of Logouts Across The Site===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,447: Line 1,976:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
High Number Of Logouts Across The Site
+
High Number of Logouts Across The Site
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,463: Line 1,992:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The hourly usage of the logoff feature of the application suddenly spikes by 500%.
+
The hourly usage of the log-off feature of the application suddenly spikes by 500%.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 1,473: Line 2,002:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===STE2: High Number Of Logins Across The Site===
+
===STE2: High Number of Logins Across The Site===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,482: Line 2,011:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
High Number Of Logins Across The Site
+
High Number of Logins Across The Site
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,498: Line 2,027:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The hourly usage of the logon feature of the application suddenly spikes by 500%.
+
The hourly usage of the logon feature of the application suddenly spikes by 1,000%.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 1,508: Line 2,037:
 
</table>
 
</table>
  
===STE3: High Number Of Same Transaction Across The Site===
+
===STE3: Significant Change in Usage of Same Transaction Across The Site===
  
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
Line 1,517: Line 2,046:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
High Number Of Same Transaction Across The Site
+
Significant Change in Usage of Same Transaction Across The Site
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
Line 1,525: Line 2,054:
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
A sudden spike in similar activity across numerous users of the application may indicate a phishing attack or CSRF attack against the users.
+
A sudden spike in similar activity across numerous users of the application may indicate a phishing attack or CSRF attack against the users; a rapid reduction in activity may indicate users are being redirected elsewhere; a significant change in average transaction value or other quantitative measure may indicate suspicious activity.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
+
External events (e.g. a news item) may lead to additional unexpected traffic which is not an attack.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
The hourly usage of the update email address feature of the application suddenly spikes by 500%.
+
Example 1: The hourly usage of the update email address feature of the application suddenly spikes by 2,000%.
 +
 
 +
Example 2: A website is compromised and users are redirected to a malicious site part-way through a process; the number of successful fully completed transactions drops to nil.
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
Line 1,542: Line 2,073:
 
</td></tr>
 
</td></tr>
 
</table>
 
</table>
 +
 +
 +
==Reputation==
 +
 +
These reputation detection points could be treated either as:
 +
* like any other detection point contributing to the count of suspicious events, or
 +
* used to alter security logging, or the threshold levels, or associated response actions
 +
The former could lead to a much higher false positive rate.
 +
 +
===RP1: Suspicious or Disallowed User Source Location===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RP1
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Suspicious or Disallowed User Source Location
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Reputation
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
The user is identified as using an IP address associated with a blacklist
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Suspicious or invalid geo-location, IP addresses or IP address ranges may be identified using a whitelist,internal blacklist, list of Tor nodes (e.g. https://torstat.xenobite.eu/), HTTP blacklist (e.g.
 +
http://www.projecthoneypot.org/httpbl.php and Dshield http://www.dshield.org) list of spammers (e.g. Spamhaus http://www.spamhaus.org/) or known botnets (e.g.
 +
http://www.shadowserver.org/wiki/).
 +
 +
"Suspicious" may also depend upon the type of user e.g. users in the "CMS manager" role should be using an internal network IP address, public users could be from anywhere, customers should only be accessing the application from a particular geographical region, search engine robots should be from a limited range of IP addresses.
 +
 +
Take care that "suspicious" does not contribute to greater false positives.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: A user with an external IP address is accessing an internal application, which should not be occurring.
 +
 +
Example 2: An authenticated user is accessing the application using a known Tor node, and attack detection thresholds are made more strict.
 +
 +
Example 3: An authenticated user is accessing the application from a known trustworthy IP address, and thresholds for certain activity (e.g. input data validation errors) are relaxed slightly.
 +
 +
Example 4: The IP address of the payment authentication server, used by the application for credit card authorisation, changes.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP1#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP1#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP1#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
===RP2: Suspicious External User Behavior===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RP2
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Suspicious External User Behavior
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Reputation
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
External (to the application) devices and systems (e.g. host and network IDS, file integrity monitoring, disk usage monitoring, anti-malware service, IPS, network firewall, web application firewall, web server logging, XML gateway, database firewall, SIEM) detect anomalous behavior by the user (e.g. session and/or IP address).
 +
 +
This information can be used by the application to contribute to its knowledge about a potential attacker.  In some cases, the information could be detected by the application itself (e.g. XSS pattern black listing), but may be more effectively identified by the external device, or is not known to the application normally (e.g. requests for missing resources that the web server sees, but does not pass onto the application).
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
The greater the knowledge a device or system has about the application, the greater confidence can be given to evidence of suspicious behaviour. Therefore, for example, attempted SQL injection detected by a web application firewall (WAF) might be given greater weight than information from a network firewall about the IP address.
 +
 +
The power of AppSensor is its accuracy and low false positive rate, and the usage of external data should be carefully assessed to ensure it does not contribute to a higher false positive rate.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: An IDS has detected suspicious activity by a particular IP address, and this is used to temporarily tighten the attack detection thresholds for requests from all users in the same IP address range.
 +
 +
Example 2: An application is using the ModSecurity web application firewall with the [[:Category:OWASP ModSecurity Core Rule Set Project|Core Rule Set]], and utilises the anomaly score data passed forward in the X-WAF-Events and X-WAF-Score HTTP headers (optional rules in modsecurity_crs_49_header_tagging.conf) to adjust the level of application logging for each user.
 +
 +
Example 3: Information from an instance of PHPIDS suggests request data may be malicious.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP2#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP2#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP2#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
===RP3: Suspicious Client-Side Behavior===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RP3
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RP3 Suspicious Client-Side Behavior
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Reputation
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
The application receives a report of client-side security policy exceptions.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Take care this information does not contribute to greater false positives.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: An internal corporate intranet application detects use of a non-standard workstation configuration (e.g. using JavaScript font or plugin detection see [http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoints#SE6:_Change_Of_User_Agent_Mid_Session SE6]). An alert is raised for further investigation.
 +
 +
Example 2: An online banking application receives details of suspicious client-side behaviour that would not be expected in normal application use, via a [http://www.w3.org/Security/wiki/Content_Security_Policy Content Security Policy] violation report.
 +
The application increases logging for the user, and decreases the monetary limit at which the user's payments require manual authorisation by bank staff.
 +
 +
Example 3: The HTTP user agent header value does not agree with other indicators (e.g. using JavaScript detection as in example 1 above).  [http://ha.ckers.org/blog/20100904/browser-detection-autopwn-etc/ Reference].
 +
 +
Example 4: A honeyclient system monitoring the web application reports unexpected behavior in the generated web pages output.
 +
 +
Example 5: A third-party monitoring system detects page content that is unauthorised and/or contrary to policy (e.g. structure, included links, HTML validation, inclusion of certain data such as payment card data).
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP3#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP3#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP3#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
===RP4: Change to Environment Threat Level===
 +
 +
<table style="border-style:double;border-width:3px;" >
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >id</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
RP4
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >title</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Change to Environment Threat Level
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >category</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Reputation
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >description</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
The general threat level (e.g. general risk of attack from the Internet, or specific targetted attacks against an organisation) is
 +
elevated.  This could also be used to change response sensitivity due to short-term effects such as application upgrades/patching.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >consideration</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
This input could be used to alter thresholds for AppSensor responses.
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >examples</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
Example 1: A machine-readable threat index is read from a third-party and is used to control security logging levels.
 +
 +
Example 2: Business circumstances (e.g. increased attention by activists) raises the suspicion the application may be at increased risk of mis-use, and response thresholds for attack detection are tightened for non-authenticated users.
 +
 +
Example 3: The Defense Condition Level ([http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/defcon.htm DEFCON]) is raised and response thresholds are changed
 +
</td></tr>
 +
<tr><td style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;background-color:#CCCCCC;text-transform:uppercase " >code</td>
 +
<td style="background-color:#F2F2F2;table-layout:fixed;width:700px;" >
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP4#java Java]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP4#net .Net]]
 +
[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/AppSensor_DetectionPoint_RP4#php PHP]]
 +
</td></tr>
 +
</table>
 +
 +
[[Category:OWASP AppSensor Project]]

Revision as of 06:08, 8 August 2011

About This Document

These detection points are part of the OWASP AppSensor project which advocates bringing intelligent intrusion detection inside the application. These detection points can be used to identify a malicious user that is probing for vulnerabilities or weaknesses within your application.

Read more about why application logging is the way to go.

Contents


Detection Points

RequestException

RE1: Unexpected HTTP Command

id

RE1

title

Unexpected HTTP Command

category

RequestException

description

An HTTP request is received which contains unexpected/disallowed commands.

consideration

A list of accepted commands should be generated (i.e. GET and POST) and all other HTTP commands should generate an event.

examples

Instead of a GET or POST request, the user sends a TRACE request to the application.

Cross references:

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

RE2: Attempt to Invoke Unsupported HTTP Method

id

RE2

title

Attempt to Invoke Unsupported HTTP Method

category

RequestException

description

An HTTP request is received which contains a non-existent HTTP command (does not match anything in this list: HEAD, GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, TRACE, OPTIONS, CONNECT).

consideration
examples

Instead of a GET or POST request, the user sends a TEST request to the application (TEST is not a valid HTTP request method).

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

RE3: GET When Expecting POST

id

RE3

title

GET When Expecting POST

category

RequestException

description

A page which is expecting only POST requests, is requested by HTTP method GET.

consideration

Some pages may be designed to receive both GET and POST requests.

examples

The user sends a GET request to a page which has only been used for POSTs.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

RE4: POST When Expecting GET

id

RE4

title

POST When Expecting GET

category

RequestException

description

A page which is expecting only GET requests, receives a POST.

consideration
examples

The user utilizes a proxy tool to build a custom POST request and sends it to a page which has been accessed by GET requests.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

RE5: Additional/Duplicated Data in Request

id

RE5

title

Additional/Duplicated Data in Request

category

RequestException

description

Additional unexpected parameters or HTTP headers, or duplicates, are received with the request.

consideration

Additional parameters may be an attempt to override values or to exploit unexposed functionality. Duplicated parameters may be an indication of attempted HTTP parameter pollution.

Beware of firing this detector when additional cookies, not used by the application, are found (as opposed to duplicated cookies) since these may relate to third-party code (e.g. advertisements, analytics) or some other application.

Note that extra HTTP headers may be added by intermediate proxies, and unless the network configuration is fixed (an internal network perhaps), additional headers cannot be controlled and thus cannot be used to infer existence of a potential attacker.

examples

Example 1: Additional form or URL parameters submitted with request (e.g. debug=1, servervariable=2000).

Example 2: A parameter is defined more than once in the URL Query String.

Example 3: An HTTP header is duplicated.

Example 4: An additional HTTP header is found.

Example 5: A URL path parameter with the same name as a form parameter is sent with the request

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

RE6: Data Missing from Request

id

RE6

title

Data Missing from Request

category

RequestException

description

Expected parameters or HTTP headers are missing from the request.

consideration

Bookmarking and use of a browser's "back button" can lead to requests without the expected parameters.

examples

Example 1: A page is requested without any of the required form parameters.

Example 2: The HTTP-Accept header is not present in a request.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

RE7: Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Parameter

id

RE7

title

Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Parameter

category

RequestException

description

The user provides a parameter value with a large number of characters.

consideration
examples

Example 1: The user submits a form field with more characters than the form's maxlength attribute and client-side validation would allow

Example 2: The user submits data in a form's hidden field which is longer than expected.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

RE8: Unexpected Type of Characters in Parameter

id

RE8

title

Unexpected Type of Characters in Parameter

category

RequestException

description

The user provides a parameter value containing characters outwith the expected range.

consideration
examples

Example 1: The user sends an HTTP header containing a line break character.

Example 2: The user sends a URL parameter value that contains ASCII characters below 20 or above 7E.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]


AuthenticationException

AE1: Use of Multiple Usernames

id

AE1

title

Use of Multiple Usernames

category

AuthenticationException

description

Multiple usernames are attempted when logging into the application.

consideration

The assignment of login attempts to a user can be based on a sessionID given to the user when they first visit the website. Correlating based on IP address is difficult since multiple users could be using the site from the same IP address (e.g. corporate NAT).

examples

User first tries username 'bob', then username 'sue', then 'steve', etc.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE2: Multiple Failed Passwords

id

AE2

title

Multiple Failed Passwords

category

AuthenticationException

description

For a single username, multiple bad passwords, or other authentication credentials, are entered.

consideration

See Popularity is Everything section 4 - Attack-Detection Scenarios for ideas about tracking use of unsuccessful passwords and looking whether these are used against multiple accounts.

examples

Example 1: User tries username:password combination of 'user:pass1', 'user:pass2', 'user:pass3', etc.

Example 2: Multiple failed PINs are attempted for the same customer account.

Example 3: In an online banking application, several invalid mobile authentication codes, transaction verification codes or transaction authentication numbers are submitted.

Example 4: A user provides the correct password, but repeatedly fails to provide the required second password correctly.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE3: High Rate of Login Attempts

id

AE3

title

High Rate of Login Attempts

category

AuthenticationException

description

The rate of login attempts becomes too high (possibly indicating an automated login attack).

consideration

The threshold should relate to a limit and period appropriate to the application (e.g. total number in a second or minute or hour).

examples

User sends the following login attempts within 1 second - 'user1:pass1', 'user1:pass2', 'user2:pass3', 'user2:pass4'.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE4: Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Username

id

AE4

title

Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Username

category

AuthenticationException

description

The user provides a username with a large number of characters.

consideration
examples

The user sends a username that is 200 characters long when 6-8 are expected.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE5: Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Password

id

AE5

title

Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Password

category

AuthenticationException

description

The user provides a password with a large number of characters.

consideration

Higher limits may be required for sites which allow users to have pass phrases.

examples

Example 1: The user sends a password that is 200 characters long, when 5-20 are expected.

Example 2: The user sends a PIN of 30 characters.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE6: Unexpected Type of Character in Username

id

AE6

title

Unexpected Type of Character in Username

category

AuthenticationException

description

The user provides a username which contains characters outwith the expected range.

consideration

Any characters below hex value 20 or above 7E are often considered illegal (decimal values of below 32 or above 126).

examples

The user sends a username that contains ASCII non-printable characters such as the NULL byte.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE7: Unexpected Type of Character in Password

id

AE7

title

Unexpected Type of Character in Password

category

AuthenticationException

description

The user provides a password containing characters outwith the expected range.

consideration

Examples include null byte, and characters which need the ALT key to be used.

examples

The user sends a password that contains ASCII characters below 20 or above 7E.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE8: Providing Only the Username

id

AE8

title

Providing Only the Username

category

AuthenticationException

description

The user submits a POST request which only contains the username variable. The password variable has been removed.

consideration

This is different from only providing the username in the login form since in that case the password variable would be present and empty.

examples

The user utilizes a proxy tool to remove the password variable from the submitted POST request.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE9: Providing Only the Password

id

AE9

title

Providing Only the Password

category

AuthenticationException

description

The user submits a POST request which only contains the password variable. The username variable has been removed.

consideration

This is different from only providing the password in the login form since in that case the username variable would be present and empty.

examples

The user utilizes a proxy tool to remove the username variable from the submitted POST request.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE10: Additional POST Variable

id

AE10

title

Additional POST Variable

category

AuthenticationException

description

Additional, unexpected POST variables are received during an authentication request.

consideration
examples

The user utilizes a proxy tool to add the POST variable of 'admin=true' to the request.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE11: Missing POST Variable

id

AE11

title

Removing POST Variables

category

AuthenticationException

description

Expected POST variables are not present within the submitted authentication request.

consideration
examples

The user utilizes a proxy tool to remove an additional POST variable, such as 'guest=true', from the POST request.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

AE12: Utilization of Common Usernames

id

AE12

title

Utilization of Common Usernames

category

AuthenticationException

description

Common dictionary usernames are used to attempt to log into the application.

consideration
examples

Log in attempted with usernames "administrator", then "admin", then "test"

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]


SessionException

SE1: Modifying Existing Cookie

id

SE1

title

Modifying Existing Cookie

category

SessionException

description

A request is received containing a cookie with a modified value.

consideration

This could be determined if the cookie is modified to an illegal value.

examples

Example 1: The user utilizes a proxy tool to change the encrypted cookie to an alternative value which does not properly decode within the application.

Example 2: The user modifies an unencrypted cookie and sets an illegal value for a particular variable.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

SE2: Adding New Cookie

id

SE2

title

Adding New Cookie

category

SessionException

description

A request is received which contains additional cookies that are not expected by the application.

consideration

A session cookie existing when it should not (e.g. prior to authentication) is probably indicative of an attack. But cookies may also be set by third party sites which get send with the request - these may be harmless. Also consider what other applications exist on sub-domains (e.g. www.example.com, extranet.example.com and sales.example.com) which may also be setting cookies.

examples

The user utilizes a proxy tool to add cookies to the request.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

SE3: Deleting Existing Cookie

id

SE3

title

Deleting Existing Cookie

category

SessionException

description

A request is received which does not contain the expected cookies.

consideration

The user may have bookmarked a page they had visited during a previous authenticated session.

examples

The user utilizes a proxy tool to remove cookies or portions of cookies from a request.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

SE4: Substituting Another User's Valid Session ID or Cookie

id

SE4

title

Substituting Another User's Valid Session ID or Cookie

category

SessionException

description

A request is received which contains cookie data that is clearly from another user or another session.

consideration
examples

The user utilizes a proxy tool to substitute valid data from another user or session into the cookie. An example would be changing some sort of identification number within the cookie.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

SE5: Source Location Changes During Session

id

SE5

title

Source Location Changes During Session

category

SessionException

description

Valid requests, containing valid session credentials, are received from multiple source locations indicating a possible session hijacking attack.

consideration

A full IP address may not be constant for some users during normal use. Enforcing single fixed IP addresses for each session in an intranet application may be valid. However, if the application is accessible over public networks, changing IP address cannot be excluded and it may be more useful to consider fixing just part of the IP address, or looking for more significant changes such as when the user's IP address geo-location region or country changes (see Autonomous System Number (ASN) and Detecting Malice with ModSecurity: GeoLocation Data). Note: source port number should not be used in checks since this usually changes very frequently.

examples

User A's session is compromised and User B begins using the account. The requests originating from User B will possibly contain a different source IP address the User A. The source IP addresses could be the same if both users where behind the same NAT.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

SE6: Change of User Agent Mid Session

id

SE6

title

Change of User Agent Mid Session

category

SessionException

description

The User-Agent value of the header changes during a session. This indicates a different browser is now being used. Although this value is under the control of the sender, a change in this may indicates that the session has been compromised and is being used another individual. This will likely not be the case that the user has simply copied and pasted the URL from one browser to another on the same system because this action would not copy over the appropriate session identifiers.

consideration

Optionally also include other HTTP headers in this check. For example, the Accept-Encoding and Accept-Language headers do not normally change and could be concatenated with the User-Agent and hashed to created an identifier.

The ideas described in Panopticlick and Javascript Browser Fingerprinting can also be used to fingerprint a particular client system but require the use of client-side code. Application owners should check the legality of collecting data, and whether it is considered "personal data" which may have additional constraints in some jurisdictions.

examples

Midsession, the UserAgent changes from Firefox to Internet Explorer.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]


AccessControlException

ACE1: Modifying URL Argument Within a GET for Direct Object Access Attempt

id

ACE1

title

Modifying URL Argument Within a GET for Direct Object Access Attempt

category

AccessControlException

description

The application is designed to use an identifier for a particular object, such as using categoryID=4 or user=guest within the URL. A user modifies this value in an attempt to access unauthorized information. This exception should be thrown anytime the identifier received from the user is not authorized due to the identifier being nonexistent or the identifier not authorized for that user.

consideration
examples

The user modifies the following URL from

example.com/viewpage?page=1&user=guest

to

example.com/viewpage?page=22&user=admin

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

ACE2: Modifying Parameter Within A POST for Direct Object Access Attempt

id

ACE2

title

Modifying Parameter Within A POST for Direct Object Access Attempt

category

AccessControlException

description

The value of a non-free text html form element (i.e. drop down box, radio button) is modified to an illegal value. The value either does not exist or is not authorized for the user.

consideration
examples

The user utilizes a proxy tool to intercept a POST request and changes the submitted value to a value that was not available through the normal display. For example, the user encounters a dropdown box containing the numbers 1 through 10. The user selects 5 and then intercepts the request to change the submitted value to 100.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

ACE3: Force Browsing Attempt

id

ACE3

title

Force Browsing Attempt

category

AccessControlException

description

An authenticated or unauthenticated user sends a request for a non-existent resource (e.g. page, directory listing, image, file, etc), or a resource that is not authorized for that user.

consideration
examples

Example 1: The user is authenticated and requests site.com/PageThatDoesNotExist

Example 2: The user is authenticated and requests a video they are not authorized to download/view

Example 3: An unauthenticated user (perhaps with a session ID) requests a listing of a directory detailed in the site's robots.txt file

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

ACE4: Evading Presentation Access Control Through Custom POST

id

ACE4

title

Evading Presentation Access Control Through Custom POST

category

AccessControlException

description

A POST request is received which is not authorized for the current user and the user could not have performed this action without crafting a custom POST request.

consideration

This situation is most likely to occur when presentation layer access controls are in place and have removed the user's ability to initiate the action through the presentation of the application. An attacker may be aware of the functionality and attempt to bypass this presentation layer access control by crafting their own custom message and sending this in an attempt to execute the functionality.

examples

The application contains the ability for an administrator to delete a user. This method is normally invoked by entering the username and submitting to https://oursite/deleteuser Presentation layer access controls ensure the delete user form is not displayed to non-administrator users. A malicious user has access to a non-administrator account and is aware of the delete user functionality. The malicious user sends a custom crafted POST message to https://oursite/deleteuser in an attempt to execute the delete user method.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

InputException

IE1: Cross Site Scripting Attempt

id

IE1

title

Cross Site Scripting Attempt

category

InputException

description

The HTTP request contains common XSS attacks which are often used by attackers probing for XSS vulnerabilities.

consideration

Detection should be configured to test all GET and POST values as well as all header names and values for the following values.

examples

The user utilizes a proxy tool to add an XSS attack to the header value and the 'displayname' POST variable. The header value could be displayed to an admin viewing log files and the 'displayname' POST variable may be stored in the application and displayed to other users. Note, the following XSS attacks would only be used by an attacker to probe for vulnerability. An actual XSS attack would be customized by the attacker.

<script>alert(document.cookie);</script> <script>alert();</script> alert(String.fromCharCode(88,83,83)) <IMG SRC="javascript:alert('XSS');"> <IMG SRC=javascript:alert('XSS')> <IMG SRC=javascript:alert(&quot;XSS&quot;)> <BODY ONLOAD=alert('XSS')>

Cross references:

  • OWASP ModSecurity Core Rule Set Project v2.0.5
    • (41) XSS Attacks: Cross-site Scripting (XSS) Attack (67 Rules)
    • (41) XSS Attacks: Cross-site Scripting (XSS) Attack [Paranoid Mode] (Additional 67 Rules)
code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

IE2: Violation Of Implemented White Lists

id

IE2

title

Violation Of Implemented White Lists

category

InputException

description

The application receives user-supplied data that violates an established white list validation.

consideration

See AC3 (Force Browsing Attempts) about requests for non-existent/unauthorised (i.e. not white listed) URLs.

examples

The user submits data that is not correct for the particular field. This may not be attack data necessarily, but repeated violations could be an attempt by the attacker to determine how an application works or to discover a flaw.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

IE3: Violation Of Implemented Black Lists

id

IE3

title

Violation Of Implemented Black Lists

category

InputException

description

The application receives user-supplied data that violates an established black list validation.

consideration
examples

The application receives user-supplied data that violates an established black list validation. This may not be attack data necessarily, but repeated violations could be an attempt by the attacker to determine how an application works or to discover a flaw or to exploit a flaw. This black list approach suffers from the potential for greater false positives than IE2 above, and cannot be used to identify all potential malicious data.

Example 1: URL in comment field identified as suspected phishing and malware pages using Google Safe Browsing API)

Example 2: Parameter value matches a known SQL injection pattern.

Example 3: Parameter value matches a known XSS pattern.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

IE4: Violation of Input Data Integrity

id

IE4

title

Violation of Input Data Integrity

category

InputException

description

The application receives HTTP header or body parameter values which have been tampered with when no change should have occurred.

consideration
examples

Example 1: Hidden form field modified by client.

Example 2: Select list value submitted in response, not sent by server as an available option value.

Example 3: Cookie set by server has been manipulated by the client.

Example 4: Cookie created by client instead of by the server.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

IE5: Violation of Stored Business Data Integrity

id

IE5

title

Violation of Stored Business Data Integrity

category

InputException

description

User's input leads to violation of data integrity.

consideration
examples

Example 1: A user's action leads to a system integrity error when writing to, or updating, a database.

Example 2: Business rule checks detect that a user's action is not compatible.

Example 3: Data accuracy checking detects duplicate records for a user.

Example 4: User input leads to an unexpected file change (e.g. .htaccess file overwritten, page template changed).

Example 5: User's request leads to a new, unexpected, outbound network connection being made (e.g. mail sent to an SMTP server, files downloaded from a FTP server).

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

IE6: Violation of Security Log Integrity

id

IE6

title

Violation of Security Log Integrity

category

InputException

description

Security or audit log tampering detected.

consideration

AppSensor may rely on the accuracy of "log" data to make decisions when thresholds are reached. This detector aims to detect the insertion of forged entries, corruption of logs, unauthorised deletion of and changes to records.

See also:

examples

Example 1: Special characters embedded in logged data about a user's activity cause the data to overwrite a previous log entry.

Example 2: Log file integrity is broken by modification to an existing log entry.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]


EncodingException

EE1: Double Encoded Character

id

EE1

title

Double Encoded Characters

category

EncodingException

description

An HTTP request is received which contains one or more double encoded values.

consideration
examples

The user sends encodes the % symbol to %25 and appends 3C. The user is sending %253C which may be interpreted by the application as %3C which is actually <.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

EE2: Unexpected Encoding Used

id

EE2

title

Unexpected Encoding Used

category

EncodingException

description

An HTTP request is received which contains values that have encoded in an unexpected format.

consideration
examples

The user encodes an attack such as alert(document.cookie) into the UTF-7 format and sends this data the application. This could bypass validation filters and be rendered to a user in certain situations.

Cross references:

  • OWASP ModSecurity Core Rule Set Project v2.0.5
    • (20) Protocol Violations: UTF8 Encoding Abuse Attack Attempt (950801)
    • (30) HTTP Policy Enforcement: Request Content Type Is Not Allowed by Policy (960010)
code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]


CommandInjectionException

CIE1: Blacklist Inspection for Common SQL Injection Values

id

CIE1

title

Blacklist Inspection for Common SQL Injection Values

category

CommandInjectionException

description

A request is received which contains common SQL injection attack attempts.

consideration

The point of this detection is not to detect all variations of a SQL injection attack, but to detect the common probes which an attacker or tool might use to determine if a SQL injection vulnerability is present. Unless the site contains some sort of message board for discussing SQL injection, there is little reason that the SQL injection examples should ever be received from a user request.

examples

The user sends a request and modifies a URL parameter from category = 5 to category = 5' OR '1' = '1 in an attempt to perform an SQL injection attack. The user could perform similar attacks by modifying POST variables or even the request headers to contain SQL injection attacks. ' OR '1'='1 ' OR 'a'='a ' OR 1=1-- xp_cmdshell UNION JOIN

Cross references:

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

CIE2: Detect Abnormal Quantity of Returned Records

id

CIE2

title

Detect Abnormal Quantity of Returned Records

category

CommandInjectionException

description

A database query is executed which returns more records than expected.

consideration
examples

Example 1: A query of a non-SQL dataset should only return 1 record but 100 records are returned.

Example 2: The application is designed to allow a user to maintain 5 profiles. A user makes a request to view all of their profiles. The database SQL query, which is expected to always return 5 or less results, returns 10,000 records. Something in the application, or user's actions, has caused unauthorized data to be returned.

Example 3: Extraction of data from an XML file should only return one matching node, but more than one is returned.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

CIE3: Null Byte Character in File Request

id

CIE3

title

Null Byte Character in File Request

category

CommandInjectionException

description

A request is received to download a file from the server. The filename requested contains the null byte the file name. This is an attempted OS injection attack.

consideration
examples

The user modifies the filename of the requested file to download to contain the null byte. The null byte can be added by inserting the hex value %00.

Cross references:

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

CIE4: Carriage Return or Line Feed Character in File Request

id

CIE4

title

Carriage Return or Line Feed Character in File Request

category

CommandInjectionException

description

A request is received which contains the carriage return or line feed characters within the POST data or the URL parameters. This is an attempted HTTP split response attack.

consideration
examples

The user includes the hex value %0D or %0A in the HTTP request POST data or URL parameters.

Cross references:

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]


FileIOException

FIO1: Detect Large Individual File

id

FIO1

title

Detect Large Individual File

category

FileIOException

description

A file upload feature detects that a large file has been submitted for upload which exceeds the maximum upload size.

consideration
examples

The user attempts to upload a large file to occupy resources or fill up disk space.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

FIO2: Detect Large Number of File Uploads

id

FIO2

title

Detect Large Number of File Uploads

category

FileIOException

description

A user uploads an excessively large number of files.

consideration

The limit and period used to determine the threshold rate is application dependent, and may also depend on the user's role.

examples

A single user attempts to upload multiple small files to occupy resources or fill up disk space.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]


Honey Trap

HT1: Alteration to Honey Trap Data

id

HT1

title

Alteration to Honey Trap Data

category

HoneyTrap

description

Fake (not otherwise needed by the application) data sent to the user and returned (e.g. as form, URL, cookie values or in the path or HTTP header) is modified. This is usually combined with making the name or value a tempting item for an attacker to try modifying.

consideration

Similar techniques can also be used for the creation of accessible CAPTCHA.

See also ideas at http://blogs.sans.org/appsecstreetfighter/2009/06/04/my-top-6-honeytokens/

examples

Example 1: Otherwise useless hidden fields, which look like potential vulnerabilities, added to some forms are sent back to the server modified (e.g. <input type="hidden" name="admin" value="false" />).

Example 2: An additional URL parameter, which is not used by the application, is modified by the user (e.g. www.example.com/account.jsp?debug=0).

Example 3: An additional fake cookie is added and is modified by the user.

Example 4: URL rewriting is used and a fake directory name is added; this is modified by the user (e.g. www.example.com/orders/normaluser/display.php).

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

HT2: Honey Trap Resource Requested

id

HT2

title

Honey Trap Resource Requested

category

HoneyTrap

description

A purposely leaked resource that has no use in normal application use is requested by a user.

consideration

Ensure the resource is not linked from normal application content such that a spider or robot might find the resource in any case.

examples

Example 1: Page, directory or other resource listed in the application's robots.txt robots exclusion file is requested by the user.

Example 2: URL identified only in HTML comments is requested by the user.

Example 3: Unexposed server function call included in Flash file source code is requested by the user.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

HT3: Honey Trap Data Used

id

HT3

title

Honey Trap Data Used

category

HoneyTrap

description

Special data sent or accessed by a user.

consideration

For honey trap data that is detected on egress only, use of outbound content monitoring (e.g. a web application firewall or similar technique) may be helpful.

examples

Example 1: Fake user name and password only visible in source HTML code used to attempt to log in to the application (e.g. in HTML comments, in server-side code 'accidentally' delivered to the user).

Example 2: A special code number or account name is left in a discussion forum site; this is then used in the application.

Example 3: An attempt is made to authenticate with the user name listed in the first row (e.g. ID=1) of the application's database table of Users.

Example 4: Data from a fake account record is sent by the server and detected; this record should not normally be accessible by anyone using the application.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

UserTrendException

UT1: Irregular Use of Application

id

UT1

title

Irregular Use of Application

category

UserTrendException

description

The application receives an unusual pattern of requests for the same page or feature from a user. The user may be sending different data combinations or trying to detect errors in the page.

consideration
examples

Example 1: The user requests a particular page, such as the address update page, numerous times.

Example 2: The user requests a page out-of-sequence, such as an intermediate step in a multi-stage form.

Example 3: The user only requests dynamic content, and not the associated static files (e.g. images, stylesheets).

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

UT2: Speed of Application Use

id

UT2

title

Speed of Application Use

category

UserTrendException

description

The speed of requests from a user indicates that an automated tool is being used to access the site. The use of a tool undertaking a high number of requests quickly may indicate reconnaissance for an attack or attempts to identify vulnerabilities in the site. Slow usage (e.g. between account creation and use) might indicate automated account creation that are then used subsequently for attacks.

consideration

If enforced inappropriately or too rigorously, this detection point could lead to false positives.

examples

Example 1: The user utilizes an automated tool to request hundreds of pages per minute.

Example 2: The user does not log in to the site until a long time after their account is created.

Example 3: New (uncached) static content such as images and style sheets associated with each page are not requested in a similar time period as the page.

Example 4: A CAPTCHA challenge is responded to more quickly than a human could possibly do.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

UT3: Frequency of Site Use

id

UT3

title

Frequency of Site Use

category

UserTrendException

description

Change in how often the site is used by a user

consideration
examples

The user normally accesses the site 1 per week, but this changes to many times per day.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

UT4: Frequency of Feature Use

id

UT4

title

Frequency of Feature Use

category

UserTrendException

description

The rate of a user utilizing a particular application feature changes dramatically.

consideration
examples

Example 1: The user submits many forum messages in a short period of time.

Example 2: The user adds many new friends rapidly.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]


SystemTrendException

STE1: High Number of Logouts Across The Site

id

STE1

title

High Number of Logouts Across The Site

category

SystemTrendException

description

A sudden spike in logouts across the application could indicate a XSS and CSRF attack placed within the application which is automatically logging off users.

consideration
examples

The hourly usage of the log-off feature of the application suddenly spikes by 500%.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

STE2: High Number of Logins Across The Site

id

STE2

title

High Number of Logins Across The Site

category

SystemTrendException

description

A sudden spike in logins across the application could indicate users being redirected to the site from a phishing email looking to exploit a XSS vulnerability in the site.

consideration
examples

The hourly usage of the logon feature of the application suddenly spikes by 1,000%.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

STE3: Significant Change in Usage of Same Transaction Across The Site

id

STE3

title

Significant Change in Usage of Same Transaction Across The Site

category

SystemTrendException

description

A sudden spike in similar activity across numerous users of the application may indicate a phishing attack or CSRF attack against the users; a rapid reduction in activity may indicate users are being redirected elsewhere; a significant change in average transaction value or other quantitative measure may indicate suspicious activity.

consideration

External events (e.g. a news item) may lead to additional unexpected traffic which is not an attack.

examples

Example 1: The hourly usage of the update email address feature of the application suddenly spikes by 2,000%.

Example 2: A website is compromised and users are redirected to a malicious site part-way through a process; the number of successful fully completed transactions drops to nil.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]


Reputation

These reputation detection points could be treated either as:

  • like any other detection point contributing to the count of suspicious events, or
  • used to alter security logging, or the threshold levels, or associated response actions

The former could lead to a much higher false positive rate.

RP1: Suspicious or Disallowed User Source Location

id

RP1

title

Suspicious or Disallowed User Source Location

category

Reputation

description

The user is identified as using an IP address associated with a blacklist

consideration

Suspicious or invalid geo-location, IP addresses or IP address ranges may be identified using a whitelist,internal blacklist, list of Tor nodes (e.g. https://torstat.xenobite.eu/), HTTP blacklist (e.g. http://www.projecthoneypot.org/httpbl.php and Dshield http://www.dshield.org) list of spammers (e.g. Spamhaus http://www.spamhaus.org/) or known botnets (e.g. http://www.shadowserver.org/wiki/).

"Suspicious" may also depend upon the type of user e.g. users in the "CMS manager" role should be using an internal network IP address, public users could be from anywhere, customers should only be accessing the application from a particular geographical region, search engine robots should be from a limited range of IP addresses.

Take care that "suspicious" does not contribute to greater false positives.

examples

Example 1: A user with an external IP address is accessing an internal application, which should not be occurring.

Example 2: An authenticated user is accessing the application using a known Tor node, and attack detection thresholds are made more strict.

Example 3: An authenticated user is accessing the application from a known trustworthy IP address, and thresholds for certain activity (e.g. input data validation errors) are relaxed slightly.

Example 4: The IP address of the payment authentication server, used by the application for credit card authorisation, changes.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

RP2: Suspicious External User Behavior

id

RP2

title

Suspicious External User Behavior

category

Reputation

description

External (to the application) devices and systems (e.g. host and network IDS, file integrity monitoring, disk usage monitoring, anti-malware service, IPS, network firewall, web application firewall, web server logging, XML gateway, database firewall, SIEM) detect anomalous behavior by the user (e.g. session and/or IP address).

This information can be used by the application to contribute to its knowledge about a potential attacker. In some cases, the information could be detected by the application itself (e.g. XSS pattern black listing), but may be more effectively identified by the external device, or is not known to the application normally (e.g. requests for missing resources that the web server sees, but does not pass onto the application).

consideration

The greater the knowledge a device or system has about the application, the greater confidence can be given to evidence of suspicious behaviour. Therefore, for example, attempted SQL injection detected by a web application firewall (WAF) might be given greater weight than information from a network firewall about the IP address.

The power of AppSensor is its accuracy and low false positive rate, and the usage of external data should be carefully assessed to ensure it does not contribute to a higher false positive rate.

examples

Example 1: An IDS has detected suspicious activity by a particular IP address, and this is used to temporarily tighten the attack detection thresholds for requests from all users in the same IP address range.

Example 2: An application is using the ModSecurity web application firewall with the Core Rule Set, and utilises the anomaly score data passed forward in the X-WAF-Events and X-WAF-Score HTTP headers (optional rules in modsecurity_crs_49_header_tagging.conf) to adjust the level of application logging for each user.

Example 3: Information from an instance of PHPIDS suggests request data may be malicious.

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

RP3: Suspicious Client-Side Behavior

id

RP3

title

RP3 Suspicious Client-Side Behavior

category

Reputation

description

The application receives a report of client-side security policy exceptions.

consideration

Take care this information does not contribute to greater false positives.

examples

Example 1: An internal corporate intranet application detects use of a non-standard workstation configuration (e.g. using JavaScript font or plugin detection see SE6). An alert is raised for further investigation.

Example 2: An online banking application receives details of suspicious client-side behaviour that would not be expected in normal application use, via a Content Security Policy violation report. The application increases logging for the user, and decreases the monetary limit at which the user's payments require manual authorisation by bank staff.

Example 3: The HTTP user agent header value does not agree with other indicators (e.g. using JavaScript detection as in example 1 above). Reference.

Example 4: A honeyclient system monitoring the web application reports unexpected behavior in the generated web pages output.

Example 5: A third-party monitoring system detects page content that is unauthorised and/or contrary to policy (e.g. structure, included links, HTML validation, inclusion of certain data such as payment card data).

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]

RP4: Change to Environment Threat Level

id

RP4

title

Change to Environment Threat Level

category

Reputation

description

The general threat level (e.g. general risk of attack from the Internet, or specific targetted attacks against an organisation) is elevated. This could also be used to change response sensitivity due to short-term effects such as application upgrades/patching.

consideration

This input could be used to alter thresholds for AppSensor responses.

examples

Example 1: A machine-readable threat index is read from a third-party and is used to control security logging levels.

Example 2: Business circumstances (e.g. increased attention by activists) raises the suspicion the application may be at increased risk of mis-use, and response thresholds for attack detection are tightened for non-authenticated users.

Example 3: The Defense Condition Level (DEFCON) is raised and response thresholds are changed

code

[Java] [.Net] [PHP]