OWASP Internet of Things Project

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Get Involved!

The OWASP IoT Project is currently reviewing the Top Ten list for 2018. Provide your insight and expertise by joining the #iot-security channel meetups on Slack.

OWASP Internet of Things (IoT) Project

Oxford defines the Internet of Things as: “A proposed development of the Internet in which everyday objects have network connectivity, allowing them to send and receive data.”

The OWASP Internet of Things Project is designed to help manufacturers, developers, and consumers better understand the security issues associated with the Internet of Things, and to enable users in any context to make better security decisions when building, deploying, or assessing IoT technologies.

The project looks to define a structure for various IoT sub-projects such as Attack Surface Areas, Testing Guides and Top Vulnerabilities.

Licensing

The OWASP Internet of Things Project is free to use. It is licensed under the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license], so you can copy, distribute and transmit the work, and you can adapt it, and use it commercially, but all provided that you attribute the work and if you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one.


What is the OWASP Internet of Things Project?

The OWASP Internet of Things Project provides information on:

Project Leaders

  • Daniel Miessler
  • Craig Smith

Contributors

Related Projects

Collaboration

The OWASP Slack Channel

Hint: If you're new to Slack, join OWASP's slack channel first, then join #iot-security within OWASP's channel.

Quick Download

OWASP IoT 2018 Planning Session

Quick discussion on IoT

IoT Attack Surface Mapping DEFCON 23

IoT Testing Guidance Handout

OWASP IoT Top Ten PDF

OWASP IoT Top Ten Infographic

OWASP IoT Top Ten PPT

OWASP IoT Top Ten-RSA 2015

OWASP IoT Project Overview

News and Events

Classifications

Owasp-incubator-trans-85.png Owasp-builders-small.png
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Project Type Files DOC.jpg
OWASP Project Header.jpg

Top 10 IoT Vulnerabilities (2018)

The OWASP IoT Project is currently reviewing the Top Ten list for 2018. The official launch date is December 2018. Provide your insight and expertise by joining the #iot-security channel meetups on Slack.

Top 10 IoT Vulnerabilities (2014)

OWASP Project Header.jpg

IoT Attack Surface Areas Project

The OWASP IoT Attack Surface Areas (DRAFT) are as follows:

Attack Surface Vulnerability
Ecosystem (general)
  • Interoperability standards
  • Data governance
  • System wide failure
  • Individual stakeholder risks
  • Implicit trust between components
  • Enrollment security
  • Decommissioning system
  • Lost access procedures
Device Memory
  • Sensitive data
    • Cleartext usernames
    • Cleartext passwords
    • Third-party credentials
    • Encryption keys
Device Physical Interfaces
  • Firmware extraction
  • User CLI
  • Admin CLI
  • Privilege escalation
  • Reset to insecure state
  • Removal of storage media
  • Tamper resistance
  • Debug port
    • UART (Serial)
    • JTAG / SWD
  • Device ID/Serial number exposure
Device Web Interface
  • Standard set of web application vulnerabilities, see:
  • Credential management vulnerabilities:
    • Username enumeration
    • Weak passwords
    • Account lockout
    • Known default credentials
    • Insecure password recovery mechanism
Device Firmware
  • Sensitive data exposure (See OWASP Top 10 - A6 Sensitive data exposure):
    • Backdoor accounts
    • Hardcoded credentials
    • Encryption keys
    • Encryption (Symmetric, Asymmetric)
    • Sensitive information
    • Sensitive URL disclosure
  • Firmware version display and/or last update date
  • Vulnerable services (web, ssh, tftp, etc.)
    • Verify for old sw versions and possible attacks (Heartbleed, Shellshock, old PHP versions etc)
  • Security related function API exposure
  • Firmware downgrade possibility
Device Network Services
  • Information disclosure
  • User CLI
  • Administrative CLI
  • Injection
  • Denial of Service
  • Unencrypted Services
  • Poorly implemented encryption
  • Test/Development Services
  • Buffer Overflow
  • UPnP
  • Vulnerable UDP Services
  • DoS
  • Device Firmware OTA update block
  • Firmware loaded over insecure channel (no TLS)
  • Replay attack
  • Lack of payload verification
  • Lack of message integrity check
  • Credential management vulnerabilities:
    • Username enumeration
    • Weak passwords
    • Account lockout
    • Known default credentials
    • Insecure password recovery mechanism
Administrative Interface
  • Standard set of web application vulnerabilities, see:
  • Credential management vulnerabilities:
    • Username enumeration
    • Weak passwords
    • Account lockout
    • Known default credentials
    • Insecure password recovery mechanism
  • Security/encryption options
  • Logging options
  • Two-factor authentication
  • Check for insecure direct object references
  • Inability to wipe device
Local Data Storage
  • Unencrypted data
  • Data encrypted with discovered keys
  • Lack of data integrity checks
  • Use of static same enc/dec key
Cloud Web Interface
  • Standard set of web application vulnerabilities, see:
  • Credential management vulnerabilities:
    • Username enumeration
    • Weak passwords
    • Account lockout
    • Known default credentials
    • Insecure password recovery mechanism
  • Transport encryption
  • Two-factor authentication
Third-party Backend APIs
  • Unencrypted PII sent
  • Encrypted PII sent
  • Device information leaked
  • Location leaked
Update Mechanism
  • Update sent without encryption
  • Updates not signed
  • Update location writable
  • Update verification
  • Update authentication
  • Malicious update
  • Missing update mechanism
  • No manual update mechanism
Mobile Application
  • Implicitly trusted by device or cloud
  • Username enumeration
  • Account lockout
  • Known default credentials
  • Weak passwords
  • Insecure data storage
  • Transport encryption
  • Insecure password recovery mechanism
  • Two-factor authentication
Vendor Backend APIs
  • Inherent trust of cloud or mobile application
  • Weak authentication
  • Weak access controls
  • Injection attacks
  • Hidden services
Ecosystem Communication
  • Health checks
  • Heartbeats
  • Ecosystem commands
  • Deprovisioning
  • Pushing updates
Network Traffic
  • LAN
  • LAN to Internet
  • Short range
  • Non-standard
  • Wireless (WiFi, Z-wave, XBee, Zigbee, Bluetooth, LoRA)
  • Protocol fuzzing
Authentication/Authorization
  • Authentication/Authorization related values (session key, token, cookie, etc.) disclosure
  • Reusing of session key, token, etc.
  • Device to device authentication
  • Device to mobile Application authentication
  • Device to cloud system authentication
  • Mobile application to cloud system authentication
  • Web application to cloud system authentication
  • Lack of dynamic authentication
Privacy
  • User data disclosure
  • User/device location disclosure
  • Differential privacy
Hardware (Sensors)
  • Sensing Environment Manipulation
  • Tampering (Physically)
  • Damage (Physicall)


What is the IoT Attack Surface Areas Project?

The IoT Attack Surface Areas Project provides a list of attack surfaces that should be understood by manufacturers, developers, security researchers, and those looking to deploy or implement IoT technologies within their organizations.

Project Leaders

  • Daniel Miessler
  • Craig Smith

Related Projects

Collaboration

The Slack Channel

Quick Download

  • Coming Soon

News and Events

  • Coming Soon
OWASP Project Header.jpg

IoT Vulnerabilities Project

Vulnerability Attack Surface Summary
Username Enumeration
  • Administrative Interface
  • Device Web Interface
  • Cloud Interface
  • Mobile Application
  • Ability to collect a set of valid usernames by interacting with the authentication mechanism
Weak Passwords
  • Administrative Interface
  • Device Web Interface
  • Cloud Interface
  • Mobile Application
  • Ability to set account passwords to '1234' or '123456' for example.
  • Usage of pre-programmed default passwords
Account Lockout
  • Administrative Interface
  • Device Web Interface
  • Cloud Interface
  • Mobile Application
  • Ability to continue sending authentication attempts after 3 - 5 failed login attempts
Unencrypted Services
  • Device Network Services
  • Network services are not properly encrypted to prevent eavesdropping or tampering by attackers
Two-factor Authentication
  • Administrative Interface
  • Cloud Web Interface
  • Mobile Application
  • Lack of two-factor authentication mechanisms such as a security token or fingerprint scanner
Poorly Implemented Encryption
  • Device Network Services
  • Encryption is implemented however it is improperly configured or is not being properly updated, e.g. using SSL v2
Update Sent Without Encryption
  • Update Mechanism
  • Updates are transmitted over the network without using TLS or encrypting the update file itself
Update Location Writable
  • Update Mechanism
  • Storage location for update files is world writable potentially allowing firmware to be modified and distributed to all users
Denial of Service
  • Device Network Services
  • Service can be attacked in a way that denies service to that service or the entire device
Removal of Storage Media
  • Device Physical Interfaces
  • Ability to physically remove the storage media from the device
No Manual Update Mechanism
  • Update Mechanism
  • No ability to manually force an update check for the device
Missing Update Mechanism
  • Update Mechanism
  • No ability to update device
Firmware Version Display and/or Last Update Date
  • Device Firmware
  • Current firmware version is not displayed and/or the last update date is not displayed
Firmware and storage extraction
  • JTAG / SWD interface
  • In-Situ dumping
  • Intercepting a OTA update
  • Downloading from the manufacturers web page
  • eMMC tapping
  • Unsoldering the SPI Flash / eMMC chip and reading it in a adapter
  • Firmware contains a lot of useful information, like source code and binaries of running services, pre-set passwords, ssh keys etc.
Manipulating the code execution flow of the device
  • With the help of a JTAG adapter and gdb we can modify the execution of firmware in the device and bypass almost all software based security controls.
  • Side channel attacks can also modify the execution flow or can be used to leak interesting information from the device
Obtaining console access
  • Serial interfaces (SPI / UART)
  • By connecting to a serial interface, we will obtain full console access to a device
  • Usually security measures include custom bootloaders that prevent the attacker from entering single user mode, but that can also be bypassed.
Insecure 3rd party components
  • Software
  • Out of date versions of busybox, openssl, ssh, web servers, etc.


What is the IoT Vulnerabilities Project?

The IoT Vulnerabilities Project provides:

  • Information on the top IoT vulnerabilities
  • The attack surface associated with the vulnerability
  • A summary of the vulnerability

Project Leaders

  • Daniel Miessler
  • Craig Smith

Related Projects

Collaboration

The Slack Channel

Resources

News and Events

  • Coming Soon
OWASP Project Header.jpg

Medical Device Testing

The Medical Device Testing project is intended to provide some basic attack surface considerations that should be evaluated before shipping Medical Device equipment.

Attack Surface Vulnerability
Ecosystem (general)
  • Interoperability standards
  • Data governance
  • System wide failure
  • Individual stakeholder risks
  • Implicit trust between components
  • Enrollment security
  • Decommissioning system
  • Lost access procedures
HL7
  • XML Parsing
    • XSS
  • Information Disclosure
Device Memory
  • Sensitive data
    • Cleartext usernames
    • Cleartext passwords
    • Third-party credentials
    • Encryption keys
Device Physical Interfaces
  • Firmware extraction
  • User CLI
  • Admin CLI
  • Privilege escalation
  • Reset to insecure state
  • Removal of storage media
  • Tamper resistance
  • Debug port
  • Device ID/Serial number exposure
Device Web Interface
  • Standard set of web vulnerabilities:
    • SQL injection
    • Cross-site scripting
    • Cross-site Request Forgery
    • Username enumeration
  • Credential management vulnerabilities:
    • Username enumeration
    • Weak passwords
    • Account lockout
    • Known default credentials
    • Insecure password recovery mechanism
Device Firmware
  • Sensitive data exposure:
    • Backdoor accounts
    • Hardcoded credentials
    • Encryption keys
    • Encryption (Symmetric, Asymmetric)
    • Sensitive information
    • Sensitive URL disclosure
  • Firmware version display and/or last update date
  • Vulnerable services (web, ssh, tftp, etc.)
  • Security related function API exposure
  • Firmware downgrade
Device Network Services
  • Information disclosure
  • User CLI
  • Administrative CLI
  • Injection
  • Denial of Service
  • Unencrypted Services
  • Poorly implemented encryption
  • Test/Development Services
  • Buffer Overflow
  • UPnP
  • Vulnerable UDP Services
  • DoS
  • Device Firmware OTA update block
  • Replay attack
  • Lack of payload verification
  • Lack of message integrity check
  • Credential management vulnerabilities:
    • Username enumeration
    • Weak passwords
    • Account lockout
    • Known default credentials
    • Insecure password recovery mechanism
Administrative Interface
  • Standard web vulnerabilities:
    • SQL injection
    • Cross-site scripting
    • Cross-site Request Forgery
    • Username enumeration
  • Credential management vulnerabilities:
    • Username enumeration
    • Weak passwords
    • Account lockout
    • Known default credentials
    • Insecure password recovery mechanism
  • Security/encryption options
  • Logging options
  • Two-factor authentication
  • Inability to wipe device
Local Data Storage
  • Unencrypted data
  • Data encrypted with discovered keys
  • Lack of data integrity checks
  • Use of static same enc/dec key
Cloud Web Interface
  • Standard set of web vulnerabilities:
    • SQL injection
    • Cross-site scripting
    • Cross-site Request Forgery
  • Credential management vulnerabilities:
    • Username enumeration
    • Weak passwords
    • Account lockout
    • Known default credentials
    • Insecure password recovery mechanism
  • Transport encryption
  • Two-factor authentication
Third-party Backend APIs
  • Unencrypted PII sent
  • Encrypted PII sent
  • Device information leaked
  • Location leaked
Update Mechanism
  • Update sent without encryption
  • Updates not signed
  • Update location writable
  • Update verification
  • Update authentication
  • Malicious update
  • Missing update mechanism
  • No manual update mechanism
Mobile Application
  • Implicitly trusted by device or cloud
  • Username enumeration
  • Account lockout
  • Known default credentials
  • Weak passwords
  • Insecure data storage
  • Transport encryption
  • Insecure password recovery mechanism
  • Two-factor authentication
Vendor Backend APIs
  • Inherent trust of cloud or mobile application
  • Weak authentication
  • Weak access controls
  • Injection attacks
  • Hidden services
Ecosystem Communication
  • Health checks
  • Heartbeats
  • Ecosystem commands
  • Deprovisioning
  • Pushing updates
Network Traffic
  • LAN
  • LAN to Internet
  • Short range
  • Non-standard
  • Wireless (WiFi, Z-wave, XBee, Zigbee, Bluetooth, LoRA)
  • Protocol fuzzing
Authentication/Authorization
  • Authentication/Authorization related values (session key, token, cookie, etc.) disclosure
  • Reusing of session key, token, etc.
  • Device to device authentication
  • Device to mobile Application authentication
  • Device to cloud system authentication
  • Mobile application to cloud system authentication
  • Web application to cloud system authentication
  • Lack of dynamic authentication
Data Flow
  • What data is being captured?
  • How does it move within the ecosystem?
  • How is it protected in transit?
  • How is it protected at rest?
  • Who is that data shared with?
Hardware (Sensors)
  • Sensing Environment Manipulation
  • Tampering (Physically)
  • Damaging (Physically)
  • Failure state analysis


What is the Medical Attack Surfaces project?

The Medical Attack Surfaces project provides:

  • A simple way for testers, manufacturers, developers, and users to get an understanding of the complexity of a modern medical environment
  • Allows people to visualize the numerous attack surfaces that need to be defended within medical equipment ecosystems

Project Leaders

  • Daniel Miessler

Related Projects

Collaboration

The Slack Channel

Resources

News and Events

  • Daniel Miessler presented on using Adaptive Testing Methodologies to evaluate the security of medical devices at RSA 2017.
OWASP Project Header.jpg

Firmware Analysis Project

The Firmware Analysis Project is intended to provide security testing guidance for the IoT Attack Surface "Device Firmware":

Section

Device Firmware Vulnerabilities

  • Out-of-date core components
  • Unsupported core components
  • Expired and/or self-signed certificates
  • Same certificate used on multiple devices
  • Admin web interface concerns
  • Hardcoded or easy to guess credentials
  • Sensitive information disclosure
  • Sensitive URL disclosure
  • Encryption key exposure
  • Backdoor accounts
  • Vulnerable services (web, ssh, tftp, etc.)

Manufacturer Recommendations

  • Ensure that supported and up-to-date software is used by developers
  • Ensure that robust update mechanisms are in place for devices
  • Ensure that certificates are not duplicated across devices and product lines.
  • Ensure supported and up-to-date software is used by developers
  • Develop a mechanism to ensure a new certificate is installed when old ones expire
  • Disable deprecated SSL versions
  • Ensure developers do not code in easy to guess or common admin passwords
  • Ensure services such as SSH have a secure password created
  • Develop a mechanism that requires the user to create a secure admin password during initial device setup
  • Ensure developers do not hard code passwords or hashes
  • Have source code reviewed by a third party before releasing device to production
  • Ensure industry standard encryption or strong hashing is used

Device Firmware Guidance and Instruction

  • Firmware file analysis
  • Firmware extraction
  • Dynamic binary analysis
  • Static binary analysis
  • Static code analysis
  • Firmware emulation
  • File system analysis

Device Firmware Tools

Vulnerable Firmware


What is the Firmware Analysis Project?

The Firmware Analysis Project provides:

  • Security testing guidance for vulnerabilities in the "Device Firmware" attack surface
  • Steps for extracting file systems from various firmware files
  • Guidance on searching a file systems for sensitive of interesting data
  • Information on static analysis of firmware contents
  • Information on dynamic analysis of emulated services (e.g. web admin interface)
  • Testing tool links
  • A site for pulling together existing information on firmware analysis

Project Leaders

  • Craig Smith

Related Projects

Collaboration

The Slack Channel

Resources

News and Events

  • Coming Soon
OWASP Project Header.jpg

IoT Logging Events

This is a working draft of the recommended minimum IoT Device logging events. This includes many different types of devices, including consumer IoT, enterprise IoT, and ICS/SCADA type devices.

Event Category Events
Request Exceptions
  • Attempt to Invoke Unsupported HTTP Method
  • Unexpected Quantity of Characters in Parameter
  • Unexpected Type of Characters in Parameter
Authentication Exceptions
  • Multiple Failed Passwords
  • High Rate of Login Attempts
  • Additional POST Variable
  • Deviation from Normal GEO Location
Session Exceptions
  • Modifying the Existing Cookie
  • Substituting Another User's Valid SessionID or Cookie
  • Source Location Changes During Session
Access Control Exceptions
  • Modifying URL Argument Within a GET for Direct Object Access Attempt
  • Modifying Parameter Within a POST for Direct Object Access Attempt
  • Forced Browsing Attempt
Ecosystem Membership Exceptions
  • Traffic Seen from Disenrolled System
  • Traffic Seen from Unenrolled System
  • Failed Attempt to Enroll in Ecosystem
  • Multiple Attempts to Enroll in Ecosystem
Device Access Events
  • Device Case Tampering Detected
  • Device Logic Board Tampering Detected
Administrative Mode Events
  • Device Entered Administrative Mode
  • Device Accessed Using Default Administrative Credentials
Input Exceptions
  • Double Encoded Character
  • Unexpected Encoding Used
Command Injection Exceptions
  • Blacklist Inspection for Common SQL Injection Values
  • Abnormal Quantity of Returned Records
Honey Trap Exceptions
  • Honey Trap Resource Requested
  • Honey Trap Data Used
Reputation Exceptions
  • Suspicious or Disallowed User Source Location


What is the IoT Security Logging Project?

The IoT Secure Logging Project provides a list of core events that should be logged in any IoT-related system. The project exists because IoT systems in general are not logging nearly enough events to constitute input for a solid detection and response program around IoT devices, and for companies that want to do this there are not many good resources for what should be logged.

Project Leaders

  • Daniel Miessler

Related Projects

Collaboration

The Slack Channel

Quick Download

  • Coming Soon

News and Events

  • Coming Soon
OWASP Project Header.jpg

ICS/SCADA Project

The OWASP ICS/SCADA Top 10 software weaknesses are as follows:

Rank and ID Title
1 - CWE-119
  • Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
2 - CWE-20
  • Improper Input Validation
3 - CWE-22
  • Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')
4 - CWE-264
  • Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls
5 - CWE-200
  • Information Exposure
6 - CWE-255
  • Credentials Management
7 - CWE-287
  • Improper Authentication
8 - CWE-399
  • Resource Management Errors
9 - CWE-79
  • Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')
10 - CWE-189
  • Numeric Errors


What is the ICS/SCADA Project?

The ICS/SCADA Project provides:

  • A list of the Top 10 most dangerous software weaknesses

Project Leaders

  • NJ Ouchn

Related Projects

Collaboration

The Slack Channel

Quick Download

  • Coming Soon

News and Events

  • Coming Soon

I Am The Cavalry

A global grassroots organization that is focused on issues where computer security intersects public safety and human life.

Their areas of focus include:

  • Medical devices
  • Automobiles
  • Home Electronics
  • Public Infrastructure

Online Trust Alliance

Formed as an informal industry working group in 2005, today OTA is an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) approved 501c3 charitable organization with the mission to enhance online trust and empower users, while promoting innovation and the vitality of the internet. OTA is global organization supported by over 100 organizations headquartered in Bellevue, Washington with offices in Washington DC.

Addressing the mounting concerns, in January 2015 the Online Trust Alliance, established the IoT Trustworthy Working Group (ITWG), a multi-stakeholder initiative. The group recognizes “security and privacy by design” must be a priority from the onset of product development and be addressed holistically. The framework focuses on privacy, security sustainability. The sustainability pillar is critical as it looks at the life-cycle issues related to long- term supportability and transfers of ownership of devices and the data collected.

AllSeen Alliance

The AllSeen Alliance is a Linux Foundation collaborative project. They're a cross-industry consortium dedicated to enabling the interoperability of billions of devices, services and apps that comprise the Internet of Things. The Alliance supports the AllJoyn Framework, an open source software framework that makes it easy for devices and apps to discover and communicate with each other. Developers can write applications for interoperability regardless of transport layer, manufacturer, and without the need for Internet access. The software has been and will continue to be openly available for developers to download, and runs on popular platforms such as Linux and Linux-based Android, iOS, and Windows, including many other lightweight real-time operating systems.

The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC)

The Industrial Internet Consortium is the open membership, international not-for-profit consortium that is setting the architectural framework and direction for the Industrial Internet. Founded by AT&T, Cisco, GE, IBM and Intel in March 2014, the consortium’s mission is to coordinate vast ecosystem initiatives to connect and integrate objects with people, processes and data using common architectures, interoperability and open standards.

Securing Smart Cities

Securing Smart Cities is a not-for-profit global initiative that aims to solve the existing and future cybersecurity problems of smart cities through collaboration between companies, governments, media outlets, other not-for-profit initiatives and individuals across the world.

Talks

RSA Conference San Francisco
Securing the Internet of Things: Mapping IoT Attack Surface Areas with the OWASP IoT Top 10 Project
Daniel Miessler, Practice Principal
April 21, 2015
---
Defcon 23
IoT Attack Surface Mapping
Daniel Miessler
August 6-9, 2015

Podcasts

IoT Conferences

Conference Call for Papers


PROJECT INFO
What does this OWASP project offer you?
RELEASE(S) INFO
What releases are available for this project?
what is this project?
Name: OWASP Internet of Things Project
Purpose: N/A
License: CC-BY 3.0 for documentation and GPLv3 for code.
who is working on this project?
Project Leader(s):
  • Daniel Miessler
  • Craig Smith
Project Contributor(s):
how can you learn more?
Project Pamphlet: Not Yet Created
Project Presentation:
Mailing list: N/A
Project Roadmap: Not Yet Created
Key Contacts
  • Contact Daniel Miessler to contribute to this project
  • Contact Daniel Miessler to review or sponsor this project
  • Contact the GPC to report a problem or concern about this project or to update information.
current release
Not Yet Published
last reviewed release
Not Yet Reviewed


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