OWASP Internet of Things Project

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OWASP Internet of Things (IoT) Project

Oxford defines the Internet of Things as: “A proposed development of the Internet in which everyday objects have network connectivity, allowing them to send and receive data.”

The OWASP Internet of Things Project is designed to help manufacturers, developers, and consumers better understand the security issues associated with the Internet of Things, and to enable users in any context to make better security decisions when building, deploying, or assessing IoT technologies.

The project looks to define a structure for various IoT sub-projects such as Attack Surface Areas, Testing Guides and Top Vulnerabilities.

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Licensing

The OWASP Internet of Things Project is free to use. It is licensed under the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license], so you can copy, distribute and transmit the work, and you can adapt it, and use it commercially, but all provided that you attribute the work and if you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one.


What is the OWASP Internet of Things Project?

The OWASP Internet of Things Project provides:

  • IoT Attack Surface Areas
  • IoT Testing Guides
  • Top 10 IoT Vulnerabilities
  • IoT Security Guidance
  • ICS/SCADA Software Weaknesses
  • Community Information
  • Developer Guidance
  • Design Principles

Project Leaders

  • Daniel Miessler
  • Craig Smith

Major Contributors

Related Projects

Email List

Mailing List

Quick Download

IoT Attack Surface Mapping DEFCON 23

IoT Testing Guidance Handout

OWASP IoT Top Ten PDF

OWASP IoT Top Ten Infographic

OWASP IoT Top Ten PPT

OWASP IoT Top Ten-RSA 2015

OWASP IoT Project Overview

News and Events

  • Added two sub-projects; ICS/SCADA and Firmware Analysis
  • Daniel Miessler gave his IoT talk at DEFCON 23
  • Migrating the IoT Top Ten to be under the IoT Project
  • HP Study Reveals 70 Percent of Internet of Things Devices Vulnerable to Attack

Classifications

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Project Type Files DOC.jpg

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IoT Attack Surface Areas Project

The OWASP IoT Attack Surface Areas (DRAFT) are as follows:

Attack Surface Vulnerability
Ecosystem Access Control
  • Implicit trust between components
  • Enrollment security
  • Decommissioning system
  • Lost access procedures
Device Memory
  • Cleartext usernames
  • Cleartext passwords
  • Third-party credentials
  • Encryption keys
Device Physical Interfaces
  • Firmware extraction
  • User CLI
  • Admin CLI
  • Privilege escalation
  • Reset to insecure state
  • Removal of storage media
  • Tamper resistance
  • Debug port
  • Device ID/Serial number exposure
Device Web Interface
  • SQL injection
  • Cross-site scripting
  • Cross-site Request Forgery
  • Username enumeration
  • Weak passwords
  • Account lockout
  • Known default credentials
Device Firmware
  • Hardcoded credentials
  • Sensitive information disclosure
  • Sensitive URL disclosure
  • Encryption keys
  • Encryption (Symmetric, Asymmetric)
  • Firmware version display and/or last update date
  • Backdoor accounts
  • Vulnerable services (web, ssh, tftp, etc.)
  • Security related function API exposure
  • Firmware downgrade
Device Network Services
  • Information disclosure
  • User CLI
  • Administrative CLI
  • Injection
  • Denial of Service
  • Unencrypted Services
  • Poorly implemented encryption
  • Test/Development Services
  • Buffer Overflow
  • UPnP
  • Vulnerable UDP Services
  • DoS
  • Device Firmware OTA update block
  • Replay attack
  • Lack of payload verification
  • Lack of message integrity check
Administrative Interface
  • SQL injection
  • Cross-site scripting
  • Cross-site Request Forgery
  • Username enumeration
  • Weak passwords
  • Account lockout
  • Known default credentials
  • Security/encryption options
  • Logging options
  • Two-factor authentication
  • Inability to wipe device
Local Data Storage
  • Unencrypted data
  • Data encrypted with discovered keys
  • Lack of data integrity checks
  • Use of static same enc/dec key
Cloud Web Interface
  • SQL injection
  • Cross-site scripting
  • Cross-site Request Forgery
  • Username enumeration
  • Weak passwords
  • Account lockout
  • Known default credentials
  • Transport encryption
  • Insecure password recovery mechanism
  • Two-factor authentication
Third-party Backend APIs
  • Unencrypted PII sent
  • Encrypted PII sent
  • Device information leaked
  • Location leaked
Update Mechanism
  • Update sent without encryption
  • Updates not signed
  • Update location writable
  • Update verification
  • Update authentication
  • Malicious update
  • Missing update mechanism
  • No manual update mechanism
Mobile Application
  • Implicitly trusted by device or cloud
  • Username enumeration
  • Account lockout
  • Known default credentials
  • Weak passwords
  • Insecure data storage
  • Transport encryption
  • Insecure password recovery mechanism
  • Two-factor authentication
Vendor Backend APIs
  • Inherent trust of cloud or mobile application
  • Weak authentication
  • Weak access controls
  • Injection attacks
  • Hidden services
Ecosystem Communication
  • Health checks
  • Heartbeats
  • Ecosystem commands
  • Deprovisioning
  • Pushing updates
Network Traffic
  • LAN
  • LAN to Internet
  • Short range
  • Non-standard
  • Wireless (WiFi, Z-wave, Zigbee, Bluetooth)
  • Protocol fuzzing
Authentication/Authorization
  • Authentication/Authorization related values (session key, token, cookie, etc.) disclosure
  • Reusing of session key, token, etc.
  • Device to device authentication
  • Device to mobile Application authentication
  • Device to cloud system authentication
  • Mobile application to cloud system authentication
  • Web application to cloud system authentication
  • Lack of dynamic authentication
Privacy
  • User data disclosure
  • User/device location disclosure
  • Differential privacy
Hardware (Sensors)
  • Sensing Environment Manipulation
  • Tampering (Physically)
  • Damaging (Physically)


What is the IoT Attack Surface Areas Project?

The IoT Attack Surface Areas Project provides:

Project Leaders

  • Daniel Miessler
  • Craig Smith

Related Projects

Email List

Mailing List

Quick Download

  • Coming Soon

News and Events

  • Coming Soon

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Top 10 IoT Vulnerabilities (2014) Project

The OWASP Top 10 IoT Vulnerabilties are as follows:

Rank Title
I1
I2
I3
I4
I5
I6
I7
I8
I9
I10


What is the Top 10 IoT Vulnerabiltiies Project?

The Top 10 IoT Vulnerabilities Project provides:

  • A list of the top 10 internet of things vulnerabilities

Project Leaders

  • Daniel Miessler
  • Craig Smith

Related Projects

Email List

Mailing List

Quick Download

  • Coming Soon

News and Events

  • Coming Soon

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Firmware Analysis Project

The Firmware Analysis Project is intended to provide security testing guidance for the IoT Attack Surface "Device Firmware":

Section

Device Firmware Vulnerabilties

  • Hardcoded credentials
  • Sensitive information disclosure
  • Sensitive URL disclosure
  • Encryption keys
  • Backdoor accounts
  • Vulnerable services (web, ssh, tftp, etc.)

Device Firmware Guidance and Instruction

  • Firmware file analysis
  • Firmware extraction
  • Dynamic binary analysis
  • Static binary analysis
  • Static code analysis
  • Firmware emulation
  • File system analysis

Device Firmware Tools

Vulnerable Firmware


What is the Firmware Analysis Project?

The Firmware Analysis Project provides:

  • Security testing guidance for vulnerabilities in the "Device Firmware" attack surface
  • Steps for extracting file systems from various firmware files
  • Guidance on searching a file systems for sensitive of interesting data
  • Information on static analysis of firmware contents
  • Information on dynamic analysis of emulated services (e.g. web admin interface)
  • Testing tool links
  • A site for pulling together existing information on firmware analysis

Project Leaders

  • Craig Smith

Related Projects

Email List

Mailing List

Resources

News and Events

  • Coming Soon


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ICS/SCADA Project

The OWASP ICS/SCADA Top 10 software weaknesses are as follows:

Rank and ID Title
1 - CWE-119
  • Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer
2 - CWE-20
  • Improper Input Validation
3 - CWE-22
  • Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')
4 - CWE-264
  • Permissions, Privileges, and Access Controls
5 - CWE-200
  • Information Exposure
6 - CWE-255
  • Credentials Management
7 - CWE-287
  • Improper Authentication
8 - CWE-399
  • Resource Management Errors
9 - CWE-79
  • Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')
10 - CWE-189
  • Numeric Errors


What is the ICS/SCADA Project?

The ICS/SCADA Project provides:

  • A list of the Top 10 most dangerous software weaknesses

Project Leaders

  • NJ Ouchn

Related Projects

Email List

Mailing List

Quick Download

  • Coming Soon

News and Events

  • Coming Soon


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IoT Security Guideline Project

The OWASP IoT Security Guideline provides follows :

1. Secure IoT Software Development Guideline

  • Software(or SDK) Running on Device
  • Software Running on IoT Cloud Platform(server-side)


2. Secure IoT Hardware Development Guideline
3. Privacy Guideline for IoT Service/System


What is the IoT Security Guideline Project?

The IoT Security Guideline Project provides:

  • Software Development Guideline
  • Hardware Development Guideline
  • Privacy Guideline

Project Leaders

Related Projects

Email List

Mailing List

Quick Download

  • Coming Soon

News and Events

  • Coming Soon


I Am The Cavalry

A global grassroots organization that is focused on issues where computer security intersects public safety and human life.

Their areas of focus include:

  • Medical devices
  • Automobiles
  • Home Electronics
  • Public Infrastructure

BuildItSecure.ly

A project focused on helping small business connect with security researchers to aid in securing their IoT-based products before going market.

Their goals include:

  • Focus effort towards small business
  • Build partnerships
  • Coordinate efforts
  • Curate informational resources
  • Present research

Online Trust Alliance

Formed as an informal industry working group in 2005, today OTA is an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) approved 501c3 charitable organization with the mission to enhance online trust and empower users, while promoting innovation and the vitality of the internet. OTA is global organization supported by over 100 organizations headquartered in Bellevue, Washington with offices in Washington DC.

Addressing the mounting concerns, in January 2015 the Online Trust Alliance, established the IoT Trustworthy Working Group (ITWG), a multi-stakeholder initiative. The group recognizes “security and privacy by design” must be a priority from the onset of product development and be addressed holistically. The framework focuses on privacy, security sustainability. The sustainability pillar is critical as it looks at the life-cycle issues related to long- term supportability and transfers of ownership of devices and the data collected.

AllSeen Alliance

The AllSeen Alliance is a Linux Foundation collaborative project. They're a cross-industry consortium dedicated to enabling the interoperability of billions of devices, services and apps that comprise the Internet of Things. The Alliance supports the AllJoyn Framework, an open source software framework that makes it easy for devices and apps to discover and communicate with each other. Developers can write applications for interoperability regardless of transport layer, manufacturer, and without the need for Internet access. The software has been and will continue to be openly available for developers to download, and runs on popular platforms such as Linux and Linux-based Android, iOS, and Windows, including many other lightweight real-time operating systems.

The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC)

The Industrial Internet Consortium is the open membership, international not-for-profit consortium that is setting the architectural framework and direction for the Industrial Internet. Founded by AT&T, Cisco, GE, IBM and Intel in March 2014, the consortium’s mission is to coordinate vast ecosystem initiatives to connect and integrate objects with people, processes and data using common architectures, interoperability and open standards.

Securing Smart Cities

Securing Smart Cities is a not-for-profit global initiative that aims to solve the existing and future cybersecurity problems of smart cities through collaboration between companies, governments, media outlets, other not-for-profit initiatives and individuals across the world.

Talks

RSA Conference San Francisco
Securing the Internet of Things: Mapping IoT Attack Surface Areas with the OWASP IoT Top 10 Project
Daniel Miessler, Practice Principal
April 21, 2015
---
Defcon 23
IoT Attack Surface Mapping
Daniel Miessler
August 6-9, 2015

Podcasts

IoT Conferences

Conference Call for Papers




PROJECT INFO
What does this OWASP project offer you?
RELEASE(S) INFO
What releases are available for this project?
what is this project?
Name: OWASP Internet of Things Project
Purpose: N/A
License: CC-BY 3.0 for documentation and GPLv3 for code.
who is working on this project?
Project Leader(s):
  • Daniel Miessler
  • Craig Smith
Project Contributor(s):
how can you learn more?
Project Pamphlet: Not Yet Created
Project Presentation:
Mailing list: N/A
Project Roadmap: Not Yet Created
Key Contacts
  • Contact Daniel Miessler to contribute to this project
  • Contact Daniel Miessler to review or sponsor this project
  • Contact the GPC to report a problem or concern about this project or to update information.
current release
Not Yet Published
last reviewed release
Not Yet Reviewed


other releases